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The morphological features of programmed cell death (PCD) and the molecular machinery involved in the death program in animal cells have been intensively studied. In plants, cell death has been widely observed in predictable patterns throughout differentiation processes and in defense responses. Several lines of evidence argue that plant PCD shares some(More)
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) have shown potential clinical utility. However, previous assessments of MSC behavior in recipients have relied on visual detection in host tissue following sacrifice, failing to monitor in vivo MSC dispersion in a single animal and limiting the number of variables that can be observed concurrently. In this(More)
Tachykinin peptides such as substance P (SP) function as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. Here, we provide evidence that they may also play an important role in the morphogenesis of some nonneural organs where epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are involved. We show the following. (1) mRNA(More)
Frozen brain specimens from six patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of leukocyte subpopulations and specific cytokines. In brain regions demonstrating perivascular cell infiltration and gliosis, CD4 and CD8 positive cells were identified within the brain parenchyma. Cytokine analysis(More)
Balanced cell proliferation and cell death determines neural precursor cell numbers in early stages of neural tube (NT) development. We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) regulates cell numbers locally in the NT of eight to 12 somite embryos. Here, we demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), which is expressed in the ectoderm and(More)
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