Micheal S. Ward

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This study aims to promote long-term retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in a spontaneous glaucoma model by injecting slow-release Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) into the vitreous. Microspheres (1 microL) suspended in PBS were injected in ipsilateral eyes while contralateral(More)
Clinical cases of glucocorticoid (GC) excess are characterized by increased fat mass and obesity through the accumulation of white adipocytes. The effects of GCs on growth and function of brown adipose tissue are unknown and may contribute to the negative energy balance observed clinically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GCs on proliferation,(More)
During the formation of neuronal circuits, afferent axons often enter target regions before their target cells are mature and then make temporary contacts with nonspecific targets before forming synapses on specific target cells. The regulation of these different steps of afferent-target interactions is poorly understood. The cerebellum is a good model for(More)
Blood glucose control is the primary strategy to prevent complications in diabetes. At the onset of kidney disease, therapies that inhibit components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are also indicated, but these approaches are not wholly effective. Here, we show that once daily administration of the novel glucose lowering agent, empagliflozin, an(More)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality in the Western World. The development and onset of disease can be attributed to many risk factors including genetic susceptibility, diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis. Numerous studies highlight the production of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and interaction with their receptor (RAGE)(More)
After entering target regions, afferent growth cones grow among putative target cells, stop extending upon meeting target cells, and transit into a synaptic ending. During these events, signals are transmitted to and from target cells to stimulate programs of differentiation. Here we describe three approaches to unraveling mechanisms of these phases of(More)
Nitroxides have been exploited as profluorescent probes for the detection of oxidative stress. In addition, they deliver potent antioxidant action and attenuate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various models of oxidative stress, with these results ascribed to superoxide dismutase or redox and radical-scavenging actions. Our laboratory has developed a range(More)
The AGEs and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) are known contributors to diabetic complications. RAGE also has a physiological role in innate and adaptive immunity and is expressed on immune cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether deletion of RAGE from bone-marrow-derived cells influences the pathogenesis of experimental diabetic nephropathy.(More)
This Article contains errors in the Acknowledgements section. " The authors acknowledge funding support from the National Health and Medical Council of Australia (1004926). " should read: " The authors acknowledge funding support from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (1004926) and Diabetes Australia. " This work is licensed(More)