Michal Nowakowski

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Anatomical studies on the external anal sphincter (EAS) indicate that superficial muscle fibres are circular at low depth within the anal canal. A more complex geometry of the fibres is documented for increasing depth within the muscle and along the anal canal. Monopolar intra-anal EMG signals recorded using an array of electrodes placed in circular(More)
PURPOSE To verify the precision of surface electromyography (sEMG) in locating the innervation zone of the gracilis muscle, by comparing the location of the IZ estimated by means of sEMG with in vivo location of the nerve bundle entry point in patients before graciloplasty procedure due to fecal incontinence. METHODS Nine patients who qualified for the(More)
A decade ago, motif at N-terminus with eight-cysteines (MANEC) was defined as a new protein domain family. This domain is found exclusively at the N-terminus of >400 multi-domain type-1 transmembrane proteins from animals. Despite the large number of MANEC-containing proteins, only one has been characterized at the protein level: hepatocyte growth factor(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of the study was the non-invasive investigation of the innervation zone (IZ) location of the gracilis muscle of both thighs by means of surface electromyography (EMG). MATERIALS AND METHODS Multichannel EMG signals were detected by means of a flexible array of 16 equally spaced silver bar electrodes. Tests were performed on both(More)
BACKGROUND Endotracheal intubation is commonly performed via direct laryngoscopy (DL). However, in certain patients, DL may be difficult or impossible. The Bonfils Rigid Fiberscope® (BRF) is an alternative intubation device, the design of which raises the question of whether factors that predict difficult DL also predict difficult BRF. We undertook this(More)
This paper reviews the available e-learning applications used in teaching medicine and presents the functionalities of the Web application developed to support classes conducted with the problem-based learning (PBL) method. The application is a form of e-learning platform that allows posting as well as archiving content stored during PBL sessions; it is(More)
BACKGROUND Modulation of the enteric nervous system seems to be promising in several functional colorectal disorders for which targeted, causal treatment methods do not exist. However, sacral nerve stimulation can induce undesirable muscle contraction or paresthesia. Therefore, we have developed a laparoscopic technique for implanting a neural electrode,(More)