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BACKGROUND & AIMS (99m)Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) and the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test are used for the assessment of hepatic function before and after liver surgery. The hepatic uptake of (99m)Tc-mebrofenin and ICG is considered similar to the uptake of organic anions such as bilirubin and bile acids. Little is known about(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the literature on the most clinically relevant and novel liver function tests used for the assessment of hepatic function before liver surgery. BACKGROUND Postoperative liver failure is the major cause of mortality and morbidity after partial liver resection and develops as a result of insufficient remnant liver function. Therefore,(More)
Port wine stains (PWS) are the most common vascular malformation of the skin, occurring in 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Noninvasive laser irradiation with flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye lasers (selective photothermolysis) currently comprises the gold standard treatment of PWS; however, the majority of PWS fail to clear completely after selective(More)
Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion elicits an immune response that lacks a microbial constituent yet poses a potentially lethal threat to the host. In this sterile setting, the immune system is alarmed by endogenous danger signals that are release by stressed and dying liver cells. The detection of these immunogenic messengers by sentinel leukocyte(More)
Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury is an often unavoidable consequence of major liver surgery and is characterized by a sterile inflammatory response that jeopardizes the viability of the organ. The inflammatory response results from acute oxidative and nitrosative stress and consequent hepatocellular death during the early reperfusion phase, which(More)
INTRODUCTION To assess potential metabolic and microcirculatory alterations in critically ill patients, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used, in combination with a vascular occlusion test (VOT), for the non-invasive measurement of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), oxygen consumption, and microvascular reperfusion and reactivity. The methodologies(More)
For the past two decades much research on selective photothermolysis of port wine stain vasculature has been devoted to optimizing laser parameters. Unfortunately, 60% of patients still respond suboptimally to laser therapy, despite significant innovations in treatment strategies and laser technology. Here we present a novel treatment approach based on(More)
Endothelial cells are covered by a delicate meshwork of glycoproteins known as the glycocalyx. Under normophysiological conditions the glycocalyx plays an active role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by deterring primary and secondary hemostasis and leukocyte adhesion and by regulating vascular permeability and tone. During (micro)vascular oxidative and(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury results from the temporary deprivation of hepatic blood supply and is a common side effect of major liver surgery (i.e., transplantation or resection). IR injury, which in most severe cases culminates in acute liver failure, is particularly pronounced in livers that are affected by non-alcoholic fatty(More)
BACKGROUND Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been successfully used to treat various solid tumors. However, some cancer types respond poorly to PDT, including urothelial carcinomas, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. The therapeutic recalcitrance is in part due to the use of photosensitizers with suboptimal optical/ photochemical(More)