Michal B Kovac

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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of cancer genomes promises to revolutionise oncology, with the ability to design and use targeted drugs, to predict outcome and response, and to classify tumours. It is continually becoming cheaper, faster and more reliable, with the capability to identify rare yet clinically important somatic mutations. Technical challenges(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1. Subsequently, the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma(More)
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is an important subtype of kidney cancer with a problematic pathological classification and highly variable clinical behaviour. Here we sequence the genomes or exomes of 31 pRCCs, and in four tumours, multi-region sequencing is undertaken. We identify BAP1, SETD2, ARID2 and Nrf2 pathway genes (KEAP1, NHE2L2 and CUL3) as(More)
BACKGROUND In the workup of patients with suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) could help pinpoint the mismatch-repair (MMR) gene carrying the germline mutation, but analysis of microsatellite markers has proved unreliable for this purpose. We developed a simple, low-cost method based on(More)
Osteosarcomas are aggressive bone tumours with a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, which has historically complicated driver gene discovery. Here we sequence exomes of 31 tumours and decipher their evolutionary landscape by inferring clonality of the individual mutation events. Exome findings are interpreted in the context of mutation and SNP array data(More)
Many individuals with multiple or large colorectal adenomas, or early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC), have no detectable germline mutations in the known cancer predisposition genes. Using whole-genome sequencing, supplemented by linkage and association analysis, we identified specific heterozygous POLE or POLD1 germline variants in several multiple adenoma(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that the target genes in sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) in the distal colon differ from those occurring elsewhere in the colon. This study aimed to compare the target gene mutational pattern in microsatellite instability (MSI) CRC from Lynch syndrome patients stratified by tumour(More)
The genome-wide accumulation of DNA replication errors known as microsatellite instability (MSI) is the hallmark lesion of DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cancers. Although testing for MSI is widely used to guide clinical management, the contribution of MSI at distinct genic loci to the phenotype remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that a(More)
Chromosomal instability (CIN) contributes to cancer evolution, intratumor heterogeneity, and drug resistance. CIN is driven by chromosome segregation errors and a tolerance phenotype that permits the propagation of aneuploid genomes. Through genomic analysis of colorectal cancers and cell lines, we find frequent loss of heterozygosity and mutations in BCL9L(More)
How chemotherapy affects carcinoma genomes is largely unknown. Here we report whole-exome and deep sequencing of 30 paired oesophageal adenocarcinomas sampled before and after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Most, but not all, good responders pass through genetic bottlenecks, a feature associated with higher mutation burden pre-treatment. Some poor responders(More)
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