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BACKGROUND The successful interaction of bacterial pathogens with host tissues requires the sensing of specific chemical and physical cues. The human gut contains a huge number of neurons involved in the secretion and sensing of a class of neuroendocrine hormones called catecholamines. Recently, in Escherichia coli O157:H7, the catecholamines adrenaline and(More)
The presence of enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) obviates the problems associated with life in an aerobic environment by eliminating the harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) that arise from respiration. Enzymic detoxification of ROS might not, however, be the only mechanism at work in bacteria. The accumulation of(More)
The interactions between bacterial pathogens and their eukaryotic hosts are vital in determining the outcome of infections. Bacterial pathogens employ molecular sensors to detect and facilitate adaptation to changes in their niche. The sensing of these extracellular signals enables the pathogen to navigate within mammalian hosts. Intercellular bacterial(More)
LuxS catalyzes the synthesis of the quorum-sensing signaling molecule autoinducer 2. We show that in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, deletion of the luxS gene polarizes flagellar phase variation toward the more immunogenic phase 1 flagellin. This phenotype is complementable by luxS in trans but is independent of quorum-sensing signals.
Microglia have critical roles in neural development, homeostasis and neuroinflammation and are increasingly implicated in age-related neurological dysfunction. Neurodegeneration often occurs in disease-specific, spatially restricted patterns, the origins of which are unknown. We performed to our knowledge the first genome-wide analysis of microglia from(More)
Pathogenic bacteria employ a variety of mechanisms to resist a barrage of stresses they encounter during active growth in or outside the host as well as during growth stasis. An in silico screen of the Salmonella genome sequence revealed that Salmonella typhimurium LT2 possesses a homologue belonging to the universal stress protein A (UspA) family. We(More)
Bacterial sensing of environmental signals plays a key role in regulating virulence and mediating bacterium-host interactions. The sensing of the neuroendocrine stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) plays an important role in modulating bacterial virulence. We used MudJ transposon mutagenesis to globally screen for(More)
Although there have been great advances in our understanding of the bacterial cytoskeleton, major gaps remain in our knowledge of its importance to virulence. In this study we have explored the contribution of the bacterial cytoskeleton to the ability of Salmonella to express and assemble virulence factors and cause disease. The bacterial actin-like protein(More)
NEWS 446 Virulence Volume 3 Issue 5 Recent studies have identified cytoskeletal elements in bacteria which play important roles in cellular morphology, cell division, DNA segregation and the establishment of cell polarity. However, our understanding of the contribution the bacterial cytoskeleton makes toward virulence is lacking. The MreB protein is a(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important pathogen and a causative agent of gastroenteritis. During infection, S. Typhimurium assembles molecular-needle complexes termed type III secretion (T3S) systems to translocate effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm directly into the host cell. The T3S signals that direct the(More)