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Adaptive transcriptional responses to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) are mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), heterodimeric transcription factors composed of two basic helix-loop-helix-PAS family proteins. The transcriptional activity of HIF is determined by the hypoxic stabilization of the HIF-alpha proteins. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha exhibit(More)
Lactate dehydrogenase-1 (EC, intravenously injected into rabbits, was cleared with first-order kinetics (half-life 27 min), until at least 80% of the injected activity had disappeared from plasma. Radioactivity from injected 125I-labeled enzyme disappeared at this same rate. Trichloroacetic-acid-soluble breakdown products started to appear in the(More)
Mammalian cells are believed to have a cell-intrinsic ability to increase glucose metabolism in response to hypoxia. Here we show that the ability of hematopoietic cells to up-regulate anaerobic glycolysis in response to hypoxia is dependent on receptor-mediated signal transduction. In the absence of growth factor signaling, hematopoietic cells fail to(More)
Joints, which separate skeleton elements, serve as important signaling centers that regulate the growth of adjacent cartilage elements by controlling proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes. Accurate chondrocyte maturation is crucial for endochondral ossification and for the ultimate size of skeletal elements, as premature or delayed maturation results(More)
The amino acid sequence of the egg yolk storage protein phosvitin has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of part of the chicken vitellogenin gene. Of the phosvitin sequence, 210 amino acids including the N-terminal residue are contained on one large exon, whereas the remaining six amino acids are encoded on the next exon. Phosvitin contains a core(More)
Solid tumors exhibit heterogeneous microenvironments, often characterized by limiting concentrations of oxygen (O2), glucose, and other nutrients. How oncogenic mutations alter stress response pathways, metabolism, and cell survival in the face of these challenges is incompletely understood. Here we report that constitutive mammalian target of rapamycin(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor is activated by low oxygen to promote the expression of target genes that allow cellular, tissue, and organismal adaptation to low oxygen. Hypoxia-inducible factor is activated not only by hypoxia but also as a consequence of genetic mutations in a variety of tumors. This review summarizes(More)
The benefit of high-dose therapy and blood stem cell reinfusion for women with high-risk breast cancer is currently under investigation. Contaminations of autologous blood stem cells with cancer cells have been described. Cancer micrometastases may be detected by immunocytochemistry, culture techniques and cytokeratin-19 mRNA reverse transcriptase PCR.(More)