Michaela Gruber

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Joints, which separate skeleton elements, serve as important signaling centers that regulate the growth of adjacent cartilage elements by controlling proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes. Accurate chondrocyte maturation is crucial for endochondral ossification and for the ultimate size of skeletal elements, as premature or delayed maturation results(More)
Adaptive transcriptional responses to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) are mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), heterodimeric transcription factors composed of two basic helix-loop-helix-PAS family proteins. The transcriptional activity of HIF is determined by the hypoxic stabilization of the HIF-alpha proteins. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha exhibit(More)
Mammalian cells are believed to have a cell-intrinsic ability to increase glucose metabolism in response to hypoxia. Here we show that the ability of hematopoietic cells to up-regulate anaerobic glycolysis in response to hypoxia is dependent on receptor-mediated signal transduction. In the absence of growth factor signaling, hematopoietic cells fail to(More)
One of the most obvious characteristics of the egg cells of oviparous animals is their large size resulting to a major extent from the deposition of nutritional reserves, mainly constituted of yolk proteins. In general, these are derived from a precursor called vitellogenin, which undergoes posttranslational modifications during secretion and during(More)
Adaptive transcriptional responses to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) are mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), heterodimeric transcription factors composed of two basic helix–loop–helix–PAS family proteins. The transcriptional activity of HIF is determined by the hypoxic stabilization of the HIFproteins. HIF-1 and HIF-2 exhibit high sequence(More)
BNip3 localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it functions in mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics. While the BNip3 protein is constitutively expressed in adult liver from fed mice, we have shown that its expression is superinduced by fasting of mice, consistent with a role in responses to nutrient deprivation. Loss of BNip3 resulted in(More)
Spermatogenesis, a process involving the differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells into mature spermatozoa, takes place throughout masculine life. A complex system in the testis, including endocrine signaling, physical interactions between germ and somatic cells, spermatocyte meiosis, and timely release of spermatozoa, controls this cycle. We demonstrate(More)
Solid tumors exhibit heterogeneous microenvironments, often characterized by limiting concentrations of oxygen (O2), glucose, and other nutrients. How oncogenic mutations alter stress response pathways, metabolism, and cell survival in the face of these challenges is incompletely understood. Here we report that constitutive mammalian target of rapamycin(More)