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BACKGROUND The neuropsychological and neurological complications of HIV-1 infection and AIDS were explored within the cross-sectional phase of the WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS Study. Special attention was devoted to the controversial issue of the prevalence and clinical significance of subtle cognitive deficits in asymptomatic seropositive subjects. METHODS(More)
In the course of the preparatory work for the WHO cross-cultural study on the neuropsychiatric aspects of HIV-I infection, two new neuropsychological tests (the WHO/UCLA Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Color Trails 1 & 2) were developed. The evaluation of these tests was performed at four sites, two in developed and two in developing countries. The(More)
Neurophysiological studies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) consistently revealed frontal alterations of cortical activity but otherwise showed inhomogeneous results, conceivably due to variable subgroups with diverse pathomechanisms involved. The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) in patients(More)
The Lifetime and 6 month DSM-III prevalence rates of mental disorders from an adult general population sample of former West Germany are reported. The most frequent mental disorders (lifetime) from the Munich Follow-up Study were anxiety disorders (13.87%), followed by substance (13.51%) and affective (12.90%) disorders. Within anxiety disorders, simple and(More)
Evidence has been accumulated suggesting that a dysfunction in pain inhibitory systems, i.e. in 'diffuse noxious inhibitory controls' (DNIC)-like mechanisms, might be-amongst other factors-responsible for the development of anatomically generalized chronic pain like fibromyalgia. The aim of the present study was to look for similar impairments in chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is conceived as a disease that implicates dysfunctions in fronto-striatal brain systems. According to this model, performance deficits observed in patients with lesions in these brain areas are hypothesized to be present also in OCD patients. Implicit procedural learning, which refers to the acquisition of(More)
Hyperactivity in the frontal cortex, leading to acceleration of attentional and cognitive processes, is discussed as pathogenetic factor in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as supported by findings of neuroimaging studies. This dysfunction in patients with OCD could be reflected by the auditory event-related P300 component, since one subcomponent of the(More)
Neuroimaging studies in recent years suggest that cortical hyperactivity associated with more aroused cognitive processes and overfocussed attention is involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which was electrophysiologically supported by an own pilot-study in a small sample of stabilized OCD patients. To replicate this first(More)
This review presents an overview of studies investigating white-matter integrity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). There is increasing evidence for white matter alterations in OCD. In adult patients the majority of all studies reported abnormalities in terms of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA)(More)