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OBJECT Although recent studies have shown that convection can be used to distribute macromolecules within the central nervous system (CNS) in a homogeneous, targeted fashion over clinically significant volumes and that the volume of infusion and target location (gray as opposed to white matter) influence distribution, little is known about other factors(More)
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) distributes macromolecules in the brain in a homogeneous, targeted fashion in clinically useful volumes. However, the binding of growth factors to heparin-binding sites in the extracellular matrix may limit the volume of distribution (V(d)). To overcome this limitation, we examined the effects of heparin coinfusion on V(d)(More)
Generally accepted contraindications to using a transsphenoidal approach for resection of tumors that arise in or extend into the suprasellar region include a normal-sized sella turcica, normal pituitary function, and adherence of tumor to vital intracranial structures. Thus, the transsphenoidal approach has traditionally been restricted to the removal of(More)
OBJECT Achieving distribution of gene-carrying vectors is a major barrier to the clinical application of gene therapy. Because of the blood-brain barrier, the distribution of genetic vectors to the central nervous system (CNS) is even more challenging than delivery to other tissues. Direct intraparenchymal microinfusion, a minimally invasive technique, uses(More)
Phenothiazines (PTZs) have been used for the antipsychotic drugs for centuries. However, some of these PTZs have been reported to exhibit antitumor effects by targeting various signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this study was aimed at exploiting trifluoperazine, one of PTZs, to develop potent antitumor agents. This effort culminated in A4(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activities of the phenolic essential oil (EO) compounds hinokitiol, carvacrol, thymol, and menthol against oral pathogens. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Escherichia. coli were used in this study. The minimum(More)
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) frequently cause progressive myelopathy. When they are localized by imaging studies, surgery can be safely performed by simply interrupting the vein draining the fistula intradurally, and the results will be excellent and lasting. In some patients with clinical features of a spinal dural AVF and in whom magnetic(More)
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