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Exercise echocardiography is an underutilized tool in pediatrics with current applications including detecting segmental wall abnormalities, assessing the utility of global ventricular function, and measuring pulmonary hemodynamics. No prior study has applied speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) during exercise echocardiography in children. The aim of(More)
BACKGROUND Perimenopausal and postmenopausal fractures are well-recognized, strong, independent predictors of subsequent fractures. However, it is unknown whether premenopausal fractures are predictive of postmenopausal fractures. OBJECTIVE To determine whether self-reported fractures sustained before the age of 50 years are associated with fractures(More)
BACKGROUND Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation (LTx). We sought to better understand the relationship between alloimmune responses and autoimmunity and, subsequently, how autoimmunity leads to chronic rejection. METHODS We analyzed the development of donor-specific antibodies (Abs)(More)
Over the last decades, software quality attributes such as maintainability, reliability, and understandability have been widely studied. In contrast, less attention has been paid to the field of software security. Attackability is a concept proposed recently in the research literature t to measure the extent that a software system or service could be the(More)
Genetic variation is known to influence the amount of mRNA produced by a gene. Because molecular machines control mRNA levels of multiple genes, we expect genetic variation in components of these machines would influence multiple genes in a similar fashion. We show that this assumption is correct by using correlation of mRNA levels measured from multiple(More)
Supine cycling may be an important alternative modality for exercise testing. Subtle differences in supine and upright exercise physiology have been suggested but not fully explored in the pediatric population. The aim of this study was to compare peak and submaximal metabolic data in the upright and supine exercise positions. Healthy children (N = 100)(More)
BACKGROUND Sinus venosus defects (SVD) of the inferior vena cava (IVC) type, or inferior SVDs, are an uncommon form of atrial communication located outside the confines of the fossa ovalis and involve override of the IVC. Despite numerous studies describing the anatomical and echocardiographic features of the inferior SVD, distinguishing this defect from a(More)