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Q-learning in single-agent environments is known to converge in the limit given sufficient exploration. The same algorithm has been applied, with some success, in multi-agent environments, where traditional analysis techniques break down. Using established dynamical systems methods, we derive and study an idealization of Q-learning in 2-player 2-action(More)
We used feathers of known origin collected from across the breeding range of a migratory shorebird to test the use of isotope tracers for assigning breeding origins. We analyzed deltaD, delta13C, and delta15N in feathers from 75 mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) chicks sampled in 2001 and from 119 chicks sampled in 2002. We estimated parameters for(More)
Methods for determining patterns of migratory connectivity in animal ecology have historically been limited due to logistical challenges. Recent progress in studying migratory bird connectivity has been made using genetic and stable-isotope markers to assign migratory individuals to their breeding grounds. Here, we present a novel Bayesian approach to(More)
BACKGROUND Accurately quantifying key interactions between species is important for developing effective recovery strategies for threatened and endangered species. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) for seed dispersal. As whitebark pine(More)
—Estimates of abundance commonly are used for assessing quality of wildlife habitat. However, disparities between abundance and fitness parameters make the utility of abundance for predicting quality of habitat questionable. We used survival of rodents and rates of capture to assess quality of habitat in greasewood scrub and sandhill prairie habitats at the(More)
The field of multiagent decision making is extending its tools from classical game theory by embracing reinforcement learning, statistical analysis, and opponent modeling. For example, behavioral economists conclude from experimental results that people act according to levels of reasoning that form a " cognitive hierarchy " of strategies, rather than(More)
The use of stable-hydrogen isotopes (deltaD) has become a common tool for estimating geographic patterns of movement in migratory animals. This method relies on broad and relatively predictable geographic patterning in deltaD values of precipitation, but these patterns are not estimated without error. In addition, deltaD measurements are relatively(More)
Long-distance migration evolved independently in bats and unique migration behaviors are likely, but because of their cryptic lifestyles, many details remain unknown. North American hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus cinereus) roost in trees year-round and probably migrate farther than any other bats, yet we still lack basic information about their migration(More)
Analyzing the effects on cell growth inhibition and/or cell death has been an important component of biological research. The MTS assay and LDH-based cytotoxicity assays are two of the most commonly used methods for this purpose. However, data here showed that MTS cell proliferation assay could not distinguish the effects of cell death or cell growth(More)
In December 2009 and November 2010, the first and second Lemonade Stand game competitions were held. In each competition, 9 teams competed, from University of Southampton, University College London, Yahoo!, Rutgers, Carnegie Mellon, Brown, Princeton, et cetera. The competition, in the spirit of Axelrod's iterated prisoner's dilemma competition, which(More)