Complexity is an interdisciplinary concept which, first of all, addresses the question of how order emerges out of randomness. For many reasons matrices provide a very practical and powerful tool in approaching and quantifying the related characteristics. Based on several natural complex dynamical systems, like the strongly interacting quantum many-body… (More)
on 25 August 1977 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science ABSTRACT Moist available energy is defined by Lorenz (1978) as: "the amount by which potential plus internal (including latent) energy of a given atmospheric mass field exceeds that of a hypothetical field, which can be constructed from the given field by… (More)
This paper describes an original method for evaluating peer review in online systems by calculating the helpfulness of an individual reviewer's response. We focus on the development of specific and machine scoreable indicators for quality in online peer review.
were the lead authors, having written the initial draft of the manuscript and taken primary responsibility for revisions. The workshop committee (contributed to the conception of the report (including core ideas and statement of research questions), to the methodology (development of the workshop questions, use cases, conceptual model, and taxonomies… (More)
A computing simulation routine to model any type of circularly symmetric diffractive X-ray element has been implemented. The wavefield transmitted beyond the diffractive structures is numerically computed by the angular spectrum propagation method to an arbitrary propagation distance. Cylindrical symmetry is exploited to reduce the computation and memory… (More)