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High-voltage activated Ca channels in tiger salamander cone photoreceptors were studied with nystatin-permeabilized patch recordings in 3 mM Ca2+ and 10 mM Ba2+. The majority of Ca channel current was dihydropyridine sensitive, suggesting a preponderance of L-type Ca channels. However, voltage-dependent, incomplete block (maximum 60%) by nifedipine (0.1-100(More)
Intraventricular resistin is known to reduce food intake, modify hypothalamic gene expression (e.g. NPY, POMC) and influence the activity of novel metabolic enzymes (e.g. 5'AMP-activated protein kinase; AMPK) in the rodent brain. Previously we demonstrated that the hypothalamus, and the N-1 hypothalamic neuronal cell line, also expressed several adipokines,(More)
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is a psychostimulant drug used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Despite its widespread and increasing clinical use, little is known about the long-term consequences of drug treatment. We compared the effects of a single injection of methylphenidate with that of long-term methylphenidate injections(More)
Leptin is secreted from adipocytes and is thought to enter the brain to regulate and coordinate metabolism, feeding behaviour, energy balance and reproduction. It is now clear that there are many additional sites of leptin production, including human placenta, ovary, stomach, skeletal muscle, mammary gland, pituitary gland and brain. In the present work, we(More)
The formation of covalent isopeptide cross-links between cell surface protein molecules by the enzyme transglutaminase C influences cell adhesion and morphology. Retinoid-inducible cross-linking activity associated with this enzyme is present in the developing rat cerebellar cortex [Perry M. J. M. et al. (1995) Neuroscience 65, 1063-1076]. A monoclonal(More)
Recent reports from several laboratories have implicated the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate as a component in the neural regulation of sexual maturation. In the rat we have previously proposed that a hypothalamic opioid restraint mechanism may ultimately be overridden by maturation of an excitatory drive, culminating in first ovulation. We have now(More)
C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mice differ in aspects of maternal behavior and in the morphology of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO), suggesting a possible association. DBA/2J mice have a compact subnucleus in the MPO, the MPOpc, that is sexually dimorphic and absent in C57BL/6J mice. To determine whether MPOpc cells are activated by maternal behavior, FOS and(More)
The brain has been recognized as a prominent site of peptide biosynthesis for more than 30 years, and many neuropeptides are now known to be common to gut and brain. With these precedents in mind it is remarkable that adipose-derived peptides like leptin have attracted minimal attention as brain-derived putative neuromodulators of energy balance. This(More)
Cellular activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in response to adrenalectomy (ADX) and sham-ADX was measured in adult male rats, lactating females, and nursing pups using c-fos immunocytochemistry. Increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was seen in the PVN of male rats at 4 h following ADX or sham-ADX but this increase was(More)
The antipyretic response to arginine vasopressin (AVP) was investigated at 3 ambient temperatures using unanesthetized freely behaving male rats. Responses of non-febrile and febrile rats to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of AVP and s.c. injection of indomethacin were observed at cold (4 degrees C), thermoneutral (25 degrees C) and warm (32(More)