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DNA sequence copy number is the number of copies of DNA at a region of a genome. Cancer progression often involves alterations in DNA copy number. Newly developed microarray technologies enable simultaneous measurement of copy number at thousands of sites in a genome. We have developed a modification of binary segmentation, which we call circular binary(More)
Exome sequencing of 343 families, each with a single child on the autism spectrum and at least one unaffected sibling, reveal de novo small indels and point substitutions, which come mostly from the paternal line in an age-dependent manner. We do not see significantly greater numbers of de novo missense mutations in affected versus unaffected children, but(More)
Mapping of homozygous deletions on human chromosome 10q23 has led to the isolation of a candidate tumor suppressor gene, PTEN, that appears to be mutated at considerable frequency in human cancers. In preliminary screens, mutations of PTEN were detected in 31% (13/42) of glioblastoma cell lines and xenografts, 100% (4/4) of prostate cancer cell lines, 6%(More)
Autism is a genetically complex neurodevelopmental syndrome in which language deficits are a core feature. We describe results from two complimentary approaches used to identify risk variants on chromosome 7 that likely contribute to the etiology of autism. A two-stage association study tested 2758 SNPs across a 10 Mb 7q35 language-related autism QTL in(More)
We have isolated three genes (TPK1, TPK2, and TPK3) from the yeast S. cerevisiae that encode the catalytic subunits of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Gene disruption experiments demonstrated that no two of the three genes are essential by themselves but at least one TPK gene is required for a cell to grow normally. Comparison of the predicted amino acid(More)
We tested the hypothesis that de novo copy number variation (CNV) is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on the genomic DNA of patients and unaffected subjects to detect copy number variants not present in their respective parents. Candidate genomic regions were validated by(More)
To explore the genetic contribution to autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), we have studied genomic copy-number variation in a large cohort of families with a single affected child and at least one unaffected sibling. We confirm a major contribution from de novo deletions and duplications but also find evidence of a role for inherited "ultrarare"(More)
We isolated two S. pombe genes, scd1 and scd2, that are required for normal morphology and mating. scd1 and scd2 are homologous to CDC24 and BEM1, respectively, of S. cerevisiae. Epistasis analyses indicate that scd2 and ras1 converge upon scd1, which, in turn, interacts with cdc42sp, a RHO-like GTPase. Studies with the yeast two-hybrid system indicate that(More)
The extent to which large duplications and deletions contribute to human genetic variation and diversity is unknown. Here, we show that large-scale copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) (about 100 kilobases and greater) contribute substantially to genomic variation between normal humans. Representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis of 20 individuals(More)
We have developed a generalized approach, using two hybrid interactions, to isolate Ha-Ras effector loop mutations that separate the ability of Ha-Ras to interact with different downstream effectors. These mutations attenuate or eliminate Ha-ras(G12V) transformation of mammalian cells, but retain complementary activity, as demonstrated by synergistic(More)