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CONTEXT Physicians in emergency departments (EDs) treat more patients with alcohol-related disorders than do those in primary care settings. OBJECTIVES To implement an effective screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) program for use in EDs. Further, to evaluate the impact of the program on alcohol-consumption levels. METHODS A prospective(More)
BACKGROUND Studies on argument have found that participants tend to prefer explanations to evidence. This apparent bias toward explanation has been qualified recently by research that has found it to diminish with the availability of evidence. AIM This study examines the use of explanation versus evidence in the context of argumentation with reference to(More)
CONTEXT The emergency department (ED) is often the primary source of healthcare for uninsured and underinsured patients. OBJECTIVES To evaluate ED staff attitudes toward and participation in referring patients to a tobacco cessation program, and to assess the program's effectiveness. METHODS A nonvalidated survey on smoking cessation and preventative(More)
Informal reasoning fallacies are arguments that are psychologically persuasive but not valid. In order to judge the validity of these arguments one has to be sensitive to the context in which they appear. However, there is no empirical study that examines students' sensitivity to contextual factors and whether contextual factors actually influence their(More)
Informal reasoning fallacies are arguments that are psychologically persuasive but not valid. In the context of informal reasoning fallacies, the truth-value of the reason in support of a given claim is irrelevant to judging the validity of the argument as a whole. This property stands in sharp contrast with the general role of the reason's truth-value in(More)
The study of epistemic thinking focuses on how people understand and coordinate objective and subjective aspects of knowing and make sense of multiple and discrepant knowledge claims. Typically described in terms of normative development, cross-cultural studies show differences in epistemic development and characteristics of epistemic thinking. This study(More)