Michael Wallis

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It has been demonstrated previously that in mammals the evolution of pituitary growth hormone shows an unusual pattern, with an underlying slow rate and at least two sustained bursts of rapid evolution (in the artiodactyls and primates), during which the rate increased at least 25-fold. It is demonstrated here that a similar pattern applies for growth(More)
Pituitary growth hormone shows a pattern of molecular evolution in which occasional bursts of rapid change are imposed on a slow basal rate. It is suggested that these bursts of rapid evolution are a consequence of acquisition by this protein hormone of a secondary function, the importance of which varies. As the function of the hormone switches to(More)
Previous studies have shown that pituitary growth hormone displays an episodic pattern of evolution, with a slow underlying evolutionary rate and occasional sustained bursts of rapid change. The present study establishes that pituitary prolactin shows a similar pattern. During much of tetrapod evolution the sequence of prolactin has been strongly conserved,(More)
Among vertebrates the neurohypophysial hormones show considerable variation. However, in eutherian mammals they have been considered rather conserved, with arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) in all species except pig and some relatives, where lysine vasopressin replaces AVP. The availability of genomic data for a wide range of mammals makes it(More)
In most mammals the growth hormone (GH) locus comprises a single gene expressed primarily in the anterior pituitary gland. However, in higher primates multiple duplications of the GH gene gave rise to a complex locus containing several genes. In man this locus comprises five genes, including GH-N (expressed in pituitary) and four genes expressed in the(More)
The human lymphoid cell line, IM-9, is known to possess receptors for human growth hormone (hGH), but the only biological response that has been shown to follow binding of this hormone to the cells is receptor down-regulation. We have studied the actions of hGH on production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) by IM-9 cells. In order to demonstrate(More)
Prolactin secretion from cultured sheep pituitary cells was inhibited by low concentrations of dopamine (0.1 nM-0.1 microM) with a half-maximal effect at 3 nM. At a maximally effective dose (0.1 microM) dopamine significantly inhibited prolactin secretion within 5 min. with an 80% inhibition of basal secretion over 2 h. Basal prolactin secretion was(More)
Human preprothyrotrophin-releasing hormone (ppTRH) includes six copies of the TRH sequence, the rat and mouse precursors have five, and those of non-mammalian vertebrates have up to eight. In the present study, the evolutionary basis of this variation was investigated using ppTRH gene sequences extracted from available vertebrate genomic databases. A(More)