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Pituitary growth hormone (GH), like several other protein hormones, shows an unusual episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change are imposed on long periods of very slow evolution (near-stasis). A marked period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of GH in primates or a primate ancestor, and gave rise to the(More)
  • M Wallis
  • 1997
Pituitary growth hormone shows a pattern of molecular evolution in which occasional bursts of rapid change are imposed on a slow basal rate. It is suggested that these bursts of rapid evolution are a consequence of acquisition by this protein hormone of a secondary function, the importance of which varies. As the function of the hormone switches to(More)
In most mammals pituitary GH is encoded by a single gene with no close relatives. However, in man the GH gene has been shown to be one of a cluster of five closely related genes, four of which are expressed in the placenta. Rhesus monkey also expresses at least five closely related GH-like genes, although the genomic organisation of these has not been fully(More)
Growth hormone, prolactin, the fish hormone, somatolactin, and related mammalian placental hormones, including placental lactogen, form a family of polypeptide hormones that share a common tertiary structure. They produce their biological effects by interacting with and dimerizing specific single transmembrane-domain receptors. The receptors belong to a(More)
  • M Wallis
  • 2000
Previous studies have shown that pituitary growth hormone displays an episodic pattern of evolution, with a slow underlying evolutionary rate and occasional sustained bursts of rapid change. The present study establishes that pituitary prolactin shows a similar pattern. During much of tetrapod evolution the sequence of prolactin has been strongly conserved,(More)
Alterations occurring when sheep anterior pituitary cells are placed in culture for 4 days were studied using electron microscopy and immunogold labelling. The majority of cells present showed marked morphological changes during culture, with degranulation and development of extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum. The proportions of somatotrophs and(More)
We have used fractionation on density gradients of Percoll to separate the cell types in the rat anterior pituitary gland and to produce a purified preparation of somatotrophs. The method differs from those described previously which used, for example, albumin or Ficoll gradients, in being more rapid and avoiding low temperatures, and therefore gives cells(More)