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Pituitary growth hormone (GH), like several other protein hormones, shows an unusual episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change are imposed on long periods of very slow evolution (near-stasis). A marked period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of GH in primates or a primate ancestor, and gave rise to the(More)
  • M Wallis
  • 1996
It has been demonstrated previously that in mammals the evolution of pituitary growth hormone shows an unusual pattern, with an underlying slow rate and at least two sustained bursts of rapid evolution (in the artiodactyls and primates), during which the rate increased at least 25-fold. It is demonstrated here that a similar pattern applies for growth(More)
  • M Wallis
  • 1997
Pituitary growth hormone shows a pattern of molecular evolution in which occasional bursts of rapid change are imposed on a slow basal rate. It is suggested that these bursts of rapid evolution are a consequence of acquisition by this protein hormone of a secondary function, the importance of which varies. As the function of the hormone switches to(More)
In most mammals pituitary GH is encoded by a single gene with no close relatives. However, in man the GH gene has been shown to be one of a cluster of five closely related genes, four of which are expressed in the placenta. Rhesus monkey also expresses at least five closely related GH-like genes, although the genomic organisation of these has not been fully(More)
Growth hormone, prolactin, the fish hormone, somatolactin, and related mammalian placental hormones, including placental lactogen, form a family of polypeptide hormones that share a common tertiary structure. They produce their biological effects by interacting with and dimerizing specific single transmembrane-domain receptors. The receptors belong to a(More)
  • M Wallis
  • 1994
In mammals pituitary growth hormone (GH) shows a slow basal rate of evolution (0.22 +/- 0.03 x 10(-9) substitutions/amino acid site/year) which appears to have increased by at least 25-50-fold on two occasions, during the evolution of primates (to at least 10.8 +/- 1.3 x 10(-9) substitutions/amino acid site/year) and artiodactyl ruminants (to at least 5.6(More)
In mammals the sequence of pituitary growth hormone (GH) is generally strongly conserved, indicating a slow basal rate of molecular evolution. However, on two occasions, during the evolution of primates and that of cetartiodactyls, the rate of evolution has increased dramatically (25 to 50-fold) so that the sequences of human and ruminant GHs differ(More)
Pituitary prolactin, like growth hormone (GH) and several other protein hormones, shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change contrast with long periods of slow evolution. A period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of prolactin in primates, leading to marked sequence differences between human prolactin(More)
The sequence of growth hormone (GH) is generally strongly conserved in mammals, but episodes of rapid change occurred during the evolution of primates and artiodactyls, when the rate of GH evolution apparently increased substantially. As a result the sequences of higher primate and ruminant GHs differ markedly from sequences of other mammalian GHs. In order(More)