Michael Waller

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Until the mid-20th century, mortality rates were often very high during measles epidemics, particularly among previously isolated populations (e.g., islanders), refugees/internees who were forcibly crowded into camps, and military recruits. Searching for insights regarding measles mortality rates, we reviewed historical records of measles epidemics on the(More)
The MB/BacT system (MB/BacT) with a revised antibiotic supplement kit was compared with the BACTEC 460 system (BACTEC 460) in a test of 488 specimens submitted for mycobacterial culture from 302 patients. Twenty-four Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were detected by the BACTEC 460 versus 23 isolates by the MB/BacT. Mean time until detection of M.(More)
CONTEXT Among patients with acute myocardial infarction, combination reperfusion therapy with a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor (abciximab) and a half dose of a plasminogen activator (reteplase) did not significantly reduce mortality at 30 days compared with a full dose of reteplase. Rates of nonfatal ischemic complications were(More)
OBJECTIVES The Early Retavase-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (ER-TIMI) 19 trial tested the feasibility of prehospital initiation of the bolus fibrinolytic reteplase (rPA) and determined the time saved by prehospital rPA in the setting of contemporary emergency cardiac care. BACKGROUND Newer bolus fibrinolytics have undergone only limited evaluation(More)
BACKGROUND This study assessed the extent to which alcohol consumption in a military group differed from the general population, and how alcohol affected the military group's health and social functioning. METHODS A cross sectional survey of military personnel (n = 5311) collected self-reported data on alcohol use (AUDIT scale) and general health, role(More)
PURPOSE The healthy soldier effect denotes the proposition that military populations are likely to be healthier than other populations. A systematic review was conducted which aimed to quantify the magnitude of the healthy soldier effect. METHODS Studies containing mortality rates of military personnel were identified from multiple electronic databases.(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the risk of mortality during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic could inform preparations for a future pandemic. METHODS Prospectively collected demographic, hospitalization, and death data from all individuals who served in the Australian Imperial Force from 1914 through 1919 in Europe and the Middle East were abstracted from(More)
There were multiple waves of influenza-like illness in 1918, the last of which resulted in a highly lethal pandemic killing 50 million people. It is difficult to study the initial waves of influenza-like illness in early 1918 because few deaths resulted and few morbidity records exist. Using extant military mortality records, we constructed mortality maps(More)
This paper draws on the mortality records of the French, US and UK Royal navies to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in global Allied naval forces. For a total of 7658 deaths attributed to respiratory diseases (French and US navies) and all diseases (UK Royal Navy) at 514 locations worldwide, techniques of spatial(More)
Purulent bronchitis was a distinctive and apparently new lethal respiratory infection in British and American soldiers during the First World War. Mortality records suggest that purulent bronchitis caused localized outbreaks in the midst of a broad epidemic wave of lethal respiratory illness in 1916-1917. Probable purulent bronchitis deaths in the(More)