Michael W Schwartz

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New information regarding neuronal circuits that control food intake and their hormonal regulation has extended our understanding of energy homeostasis, the process whereby energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time. The profound obesity that results in rodents (and in the rare human case as well) from mutation of key signalling molecules(More)
The capacity to adjust food intake in response to changing energy requirements is essential for survival. Recent progress has provided an insight into the molecular, cellular and behavioural mechanisms that link changes of body fat stores to adaptive adjustments of feeding behaviour. The physiological importance of this homeostatic control system is(More)
Secretion of leptin from adipocytes communicates body energy status to the brain by activating the leptin receptor long form (LRb). LRb regulates energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine function; the absence of LRb in db/db mice results in obesity, impaired growth, infertility and diabetes. Tyr 1138 of LRb mediates activation of the transcription factor STAT3(More)
Rodent models of obesity induced by consuming high-fat diet (HFD) are characterized by inflammation both in peripheral tissues and in hypothalamic areas critical for energy homeostasis. Here we report that unlike inflammation in peripheral tissues, which develops as a consequence of obesity, hypothalamic inflammatory signaling was evident in both rats and(More)
The hypothesis that leptin (OB protein) acts in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and body weight is based primarily on evidence from leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice. To investigate whether leptin exerts similar effects in normal animals, we administered leptin intracerebroventricularly (icv) to Long-Evans rats. Leptin administration (3.5 microg icv) at(More)
Feeding behavior is critical for survival. In addition to providing all of the body's macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins) and most micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), feeding behavior is a fundamental aspect of energy homeostasis, the process by which body fuel stored in the form of adipose tissue is held constant over long intervals.(More)
To determine the relationship between insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, we quantified the insulin sensitivity index using the minimal model in 93 relatively young, apparently healthy human subjects of varying degrees of obesity (55 male, 38 female; 18-44 yr of age; body mass index 19.5-52.2 kg/m2) and with fasting glucose levels < 6.4 mM. SI was(More)
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have elevations of fasting plasma insulin that are hypothesized to be associated with disrupted brain insulin metabolism. We examined paired fasted plasma and CSF insulin levels in 25 patients with AD and 14 healthy age-matched adults and determined whether insulin levels were related to severity of dementia and(More)
Melanocortins are peptides, cleaved from the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor, that act in the brain to reduce food intake and are potential mediators of leptin action. In the forebrain, melanocortins are derived from POMC-containing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. To test the hypothesis that these POMC neurons are regulated by leptin, we(More)