Michael W. Schlund

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Adaptive functioning is thought to reflect a balance between approach and avoidance neural systems with imbalances often producing pathological forms of avoidance. Yet little evidence is available in healthy adults demonstrating a balance between approach and avoidance neural systems and modulation in avoidance neurocircuitry by vulnerability factors for(More)
Active avoidance involving controlling and modifying threatening situations characterizes many forms of clinical pathology, particularly childhood anxiety. Presently our understanding of the neural systems supporting human avoidance is largely based on nonhuman research. Establishing the generality of nonhuman findings to healthy children is a needed first(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroimaging technology has afforded advances in our understanding of normal and pathological brain function and development in children and adolescents. However, noncompliance involving the inability to remain in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to complete tasks is one common and significant problem. Task noncompliance is an(More)
The effects of auditory statements describing a personal worry on brain activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging were examined in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) before and after anxiety reduction with citalopram. Six patients were imaged while listening to verbal descriptions of a personal worry or a neutral(More)
Many forms of psychopathology and substance abuse problems are characterized by chronic ritualized forms of avoidance and escape behavior that are designed to control or modify external or internal (i.e., thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations) threats. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation, we examined amygdala reactivity to(More)
Avoidance of threatening or unpleasant events is usually an adaptive behavioural strategy. Sometimes, however, avoidance can become chronic and lead to impaired daily functioning. Excessive threat-avoidance is a central diagnostic feature of anxiety disorders, yet little is known about whether avoidance acquired in the absence of a direct history of(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was performed to compare brain metabolism in patients with obsessive-compulsive OCD. Evaluation was done on responders and non-responders to pharmacotherapy and on healthy controls. The results showed significantly lower NAA/Cr ratios in the right basal ganglia in non-responders than in responders or in(More)
Symbolic generalization of avoidance may underlie the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate inferred threat-avoidance and safety (non-avoidance) behaviours that occur in the presence of stimuli indirectly related to learned threat and safety cues. A laboratory experiment was conducted involving two(More)
Brain injury may produce impairments in self awareness. The magnitude of impairment is often determined by comparing patient self reports with self reports of others (report-report) or with patient performance (report-performance). This paper presents data on the pattern of a self-awareness deficit in memory functioning exhibited by a brain injury survivor(More)
Results of numerous human imaging studies and nonhuman neurophysiological studies on "reward" highlight a role for frontal, striatal, and thalamic regions in operant learning. By integrating operant and functional neuroimaging methodologies, the present investigation examined brain activation to two types of discriminative stimuli correlated with different(More)