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Orexins are hypothalamic peptides that play an important role in maintaining wakefulness in mammals. Permanent deficit in orexinergic function is a pathophysiological hallmark of rodent, canine and human narcolepsy. Here we report that in rats, dogs and humans, somnolence is induced by pharmacological blockade of both orexin OX(1) and OX(2) receptors. When(More)
Urotensin-II (U-II) is a cyclic peptide now described as the most potent vasoconstrictor known. U-II binds to a specific G protein-coupled receptor, formerly the orphan receptor GPR14, now renamed urotensin receptor (UT receptor), and present in mammalian species. Palosuran (ACT-058362;(More)
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a widespread lysophospholipid which displays a wealth of biological effects. Extracellular S1P conveys its activity through five specific G-protein coupled receptors numbered S1P(1) through S1P(5). Agonists of the S1P(1) receptor block the egress of T-lymphocytes from thymus and lymphoid organs and hold promise for the oral(More)
Urotensin-II (U-II), a vasoactive cyclic neuropeptide, was recently identified as the natural ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor GPR14. The expression pattern of U-II and GPR14 are consistent with a role as a neurohormonal regulatory system in cardiovascular homeostasis. Urotensin-II induces a rapid and short-lasting rise in intracellular calcium in(More)
A series of 5-keto-substituted 7-tert-buty1-2,3-dihydro-3,3- dimethylbenzofurans (DHDMBFs) were prepared and evaluated as potential nonsteroidal antiinflammatory and analgesic agents. Interest in this class of compounds arose when a DHDMBF was found to be an active metabolite of the di-tert-butylphenol antiinflammatory agent tebufelone. We have now found(More)
Selective inhibitors of the slow component of the cardiac delayed rectifier K(+) current, I(Ks), are of interest as novel class III antiarrhythmic agents and as tools for studying the physiologic roles of the I(Ks) current. Racemic chromanol 293B is an inhibitor of both native I(Ks) and its putative molecular counterpart, the KvLQT1+minK ion channel(More)
In preceding communications we summarized our medicinal chemistry efforts leading to the identification of potent, selective, and orally active S1P1 agonists such as the thiophene derivative 1. As a continuation of these efforts, we replaced the thiophene in 1 by a 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridine and obtained less lipophilic, potent, and selective S1P1 agonists(More)
Four diarylguanidine derivatives were synthesized. These compounds were found to displace, at submicromolar concentrations, 3H-labeled 1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine and (+)-[3H]MK-801 from phencyclidine receptors in brain membrane preparations. In electrophysiological experiments the diarylguanidines blocked N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated ion(More)
Sigma receptors are specific, highly localized binding sites in limbic and sensorimotor structures of the brain that interact with many psychotropic drugs. These agents include the psychotomimetic benzomorphan opiates, the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine and its analogs, as well as numerous typical and atypical antipsychotics such as haloperidol,(More)
Ponesimod is a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, and induces dose-dependent reduction of circulating lymphocytes upon oral dosing. Previous studies showed that single doses up to 75 mg or multiple doses up to 40 mg once daily are well tolerated, and heart rate (HR) reduction and atrio-ventricular conduction delays upon treatment initiation are reduced by(More)