Michael W. Pfaffl

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Use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify cDNA products reverse transcribed from mRNA is on the way to becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study low abundance gene expression. Real-time PCR is easy to perform, provides the necessary accuracy and produces reliable as well as rapid quantification results. But accurate(More)
Real-time reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most suitable method for the detection and quantification of mRNA. It offers high sensitivity, good reproducibility and a wide quantification range. Today, relative expression is increasingly used, where the expression of a target gene is standardised by a non-regulated(More)
The stability of standard gene expression is an elementary prerequisite for internal standardisation of target gene expression data and many so called housekeeping genes with assumed stable expression can exhibit either up- or down-regulation under some experimental conditions. The developed, and herein presented, software called BestKeeper determines the(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, a lack of consensus exists on how best to perform and interpret quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments. The problem is exacerbated by a lack of sufficient experimental detail in many publications, which impedes a reader's ability to evaluate critically the quality of the results presented or to repeat the experiments. CONTENT(More)
The assessment of RNA integrity is a critical first step in obtaining meaningful gene expression data. Working with low-quality RNA may strongly compromise the experimental results of downstream applications which are often labour-intensive, time-consuming, and highly expensive. Using intact RNA is a key element for the successful application of modern(More)
The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) uses fluorescent reporter molecules to monitor the production of amplification products during each cycle of the PCR reaction. This combines the nucleic acid amplification and detection steps into one homogeneous assay and obviates the need for gel electrophoresis to detect amplification(More)
We propose a computing method for the estimation of real-time PCR amplification efficiency. It is based on a statistic delimitation of the beginning of exponentially behaving observations in real-time PCR kinetics. PCR ground fluorescence phase, non-exponential and plateau phase were excluded from the calculation process by separate mathematical algorithms.(More)
Relative quantification in quantitative real-time RT-PCR is increasingly used to quantify gene expression changes. In general, two different relative mRNA quantification models exist: the delta-delta Ct and the efficiency-corrected Ct model. Both models have their advantages and disadvantages in terms of simplification on the one hand and efficiency(More)
Reverse transcription (RT) followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the technique of choice for analysing mRNA in extremely low abundance. Real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green I detection combines the ease and necessary exactness to be able to produce reliable as well as rapid results. To obtain highly accurate and reliable results in a real-time RT-PCR(More)