Michael W. Pennington

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The voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel and the Ca(2+)-activated IKCa1 K(+) channel are expressed in T cells in a distinct pattern that depends on the state of lymphocyte activation and differentiation. The channel phenotype changes during the progression from the resting to the activated cell state and from naïve to effector memory cells, affording promise for(More)
Autoreactive memory T lymphocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate that disease-associated autoreactive T cells from patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly CD4+ CCR7- CD45RA- effector memory T cells (T(EM) cells) with elevated Kv1.3 potassium channel expression. In(More)
Adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (AT-EAE), a disease resembling multiple sclerosis, is induced in rats by myelin basic protein (MBP)-activated CD4(+) T lymphocytes. By patch-clamp analysis, encephalitogenic rat T cells stimulated repeatedly in vitro expressed a unique channel phenotype ("chronically activated") with large numbers(More)
The voltage-gated potassium channel in T lymphocytes, Kv1.3, is an important molecular target for immunosuppressive agents. A structurally defined polypeptide, ShK, from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus inhibited Kv1.3 potently and also blocked Kv1.1, Kv1.4, and Kv1.6 at subnanomolar concentrations. Using mutant cycle analysis in conjunction with(More)
An aqueous exudate collected from frozen and thawed bodies of a Caribbean sea anemone, Stichodactyla (formerly Stoichactis) helianthus, contained a polypeptide neurotoxin (Sh I) selectively toxic to crustaceans. The polypeptide was purified by G-50 Sephadex, phosphocellulose, and sulfopropyl-Sephadex chromatography and shown to have a molecular size of 5200(More)
Kv1.3 potassium channels maintain the membrane potential of effector memory (T(EM)) T cells that are important mediators of multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. The polypeptide ShK-170 (ShK-L5), containing an N-terminal phosphotyrosine extension of the Stichodactyla helianthus ShK toxin, is a potent and selective blocker(More)
Bass hepcidin was purified from the gill of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis) based on antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This 21-amino acid peptide has 8 cysteines engaged in 4 disulfide bonds and is very similar to human hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide with iron regulatory properties. To gain insight into potential(More)
Through a combination of fluorescence microscopy and patch-clamp analysis we have identified a striking alteration in K(+) channel expression in terminally differentiated human CCR7(-)CD45RA(-) effector memory T lymphocytes (T(EM)). Following activation, T(EM) cells expressed significantly higher levels of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv1.3 and lower(More)
The structurally defined sea anemone peptide toxins ShK and BgK potently block the intermediate conductance, Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel IKCa1, a well recognized therapeutic target present in erythrocytes, human T-lymphocytes, and the colon. The well characterized voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel in human T-lymphocytes is also blocked by both peptides,(More)
Electrophysiological and pharmacological studies coupled with molecular identification have revealed a unique network of ion channels--Kv1.3, KCa3.1, CRAC (Orai1 + Stim1), TRPM7, Cl(swell)--in lymphocytes that initiates and maintains the calcium signaling cascade required for activation. The expression pattern of these channels changes during lymphocyte(More)