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Clostridium botulinum is a group of four physiologically and phylogenetically distinct bacteria that produce botulinum neurotoxin. While studies have characterised variability between strains of Group I (proteolytic) C. botulinum, the genetic and physiological variability and relationships between strains within Group II (non-proteolytic) C. botulinum are(More)
BACKGROUND Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of botulism, a severe neuroparalytic illness. Given the severity of botulism, surprisingly little is known of the population structure, biology, phylogeny or evolution of C. botulinum. The recent determination of the genome sequence of C. botulinum has allowed comparative genomic indexing(More)
Recent developments in whole genome sequencing have made a substantial contribution to understanding the genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I (proteolytic C. botulinum) and C. botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic C. botulinum). Two different approaches are used to study genomics in these bacteria; comparative whole genome(More)
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of 26 strains of Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B4 showed that 23 strains carried their neurotoxin gene cluster on a 47-63 kb plasmid (three strains lacked any hybridization signal for the neurotoxin gene, presumably having lost their plasmid). Unexpectedly, no neurotoxin genes(More)
We have produced data and developed analysis to build representations for the concentration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in materials that are used during the manufacture of minimally processed chilled foods in the United Kingdom. Food materials are categorized into homogenous groups which include meat, fish, shellfish, cereals, fresh(More)
Genome sequences of five different Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type F6 strains were compared at a 50-kb locus containing the neurotoxin gene cluster. A clonal origin for these strains is indicated by the fact that sequences were identical except for strain Eklund 202F, with 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and a 15-bp deletion. The(More)
Clostridium sporogenes forms highly heat resistant endospores, enabling this bacterium to survive adverse conditions. Subsequently, spores may germinate, giving rise to vegetative cells that multiply and lead to food spoilage. Electron microscopy was used to visualise changes in spore structures during germination, emergence and outgrowth. C. sporogenes(More)
Clostridium botulinum is a dangerous pathogen that forms the highly potent botulinum toxin, which when ingested causes a deadly neuroparalytic disease. The closely related Clostridium sporogenes is occasionally pathogenic, frequently associated with food spoilage and regarded as the non-toxigenic equivalent of Group I C. botulinum. Both species form highly(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most poisonous substances known to mankind. However, toxin regulation and signals triggering synthesis as well as the regulatory network and actors controlling toxin production are unknown. Experiments show that the neurotoxin gene is growth phase dependent for(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most potent biological substances known to mankind. BoNTs are the agents responsible for botulism, a rare condition affecting the neuromuscular junction and causing a spectrum of diseases ranging from mild cranial nerve palsies to acute respiratory failure and(More)