Michael W. Krause

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In hippocampal and other cortical neurons, action potentials are followed by afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) generated by the activation of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels). By shaping the neuronal firing pattern, these AHPs contribute to the regulation of excitability and to the encoding function of neurons. Here we report that CA1(More)
The myoD gene converts many differentiated cell types into muscle. MyoD is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix family of proteins; this 68-amino acid domain in MyoD is necessary and sufficient for myogenesis. MyoD binds cooperatively to muscle-specific enhancers and activates transcription. The helix-loop-helix motif is responsible for dimerization, and,(More)
During C. elegans embryogenesis an 8-cell stage blastomere, called MS, undergoes a reproducible cleavage pattern, producing pharyngeal cells, body wall muscles, and cell deaths. We show here that maternal-effect mutations in the pie-1 and mex-1 genes cause additional 8-cell stage blastomeres to adopt a fate very similar to that of the wild-type MS(More)
While determining the 5' ends of C. elegans actin mRNAs, we have discovered a 22 nucleotide spliced leader sequence. The leader sequence is found on mRNA from three of the four nematode actin genes. The leader also appears to be present on some, but not all, nonactin mRNAs. The actin mRNA leader sequence is identical to the first 22 nucleotides of a novel(More)
Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) is a highly conserved cellular protein that was identified by its activity in protecting retroviral DNA against autointegration. We show that BAF has the property of bridging double-stranded DNA in a highly ordered nucleoprotein complex. Whereas BAF protein alone is a dimer in solution, upon binding DNA, BAF forms a(More)
Basic-helix-loop helix factors of the myoD/myf5/ myogenin/MRF4 family have been implicated in acquisition and elaboration of muscle cell fates. Here we describe both myogenic and non-myogenic roles for the Caenorhabditis elegans member of this family (CeMyoD) in postembryonic mesodermal patterning. The postembryonic mesodermal lineage in C. elegans provides(More)
We have cloned a gene from the nematode C. elegans that is closely related to the vertebrate MyoD gene family. The nematode gene product, CeMyoD, is a nuclear protein that is expressed specifically in body wall muscle cells. Antibody staining of early embryos shows that CeMyoD accumulates in early blastomeres that will subsequently produce only body wall(More)
We investigated the cis-acting sequences regulating expression of the Caenorhabditis elegans gene hlh-1, a homolog of the MyoD family of myogenic regulatory factors. The hlh-1 gene is expressed in mature body wall muscle, in clonal muscle precursors, in a set of early embryonic blastomeres (the MS-granddaughters), and in six glial-like cells called GLRs.(More)
The E proteins of mammals, and the related Daughterless (DA) protein of Drosophila, are ubiquitously expressed helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors that play a role in many developmental processes. We report here the characterization of a related C. elegans protein, CeE/DA, which has a dynamic and restricted distribution during development. CeE/DA(More)
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) inactivation increases food intake, indicating that NAc neurons exert ongoing inhibition of feeding. We previously described a subpopulation of NAc neurons that pause during sucrose licking and proposed that the pause permits consumption. We tested this hypothesis by first recording NAc neurons during sucrose consumption, and then(More)