Michael W. Konrad

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This report summarizes the pharmacokinetics in humans of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) given as an i.v. bolus, i.v. or i.p. infusion, and i.m. or s.c. injection. Immediately after an i.v. bolus the serum IL-2 level equals the dose divided by the plasma volume, in a typical human 650 units/ml for a dose of 10(6) units/m2. The level initially decreases(More)
Recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL-2) was administered by s.c. injection daily, 5 days/week to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in an escalating dose regimen. Fifteen patients were entered in this study and are evaluable for toxicity with one patient not evaluable for response because of lack of measurable disease. The patient population had(More)
Recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL 2, Cetus) was administered in escalating doses to 30 patients with advanced malignancy, including 14 patients with the epidemic form of Kaposi's sarcoma, in 2 week treatment cycles as a 6 h i.v. infusion for 10 doses. The maximum tolerated dose was 2 X 10(6) U/m2, with dose-limiting toxicity consisting of fever, diarrhea, and(More)
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapies have antitumor activities against several neoplasms. In vitro these activities are enhanced by beta-interferon (IFN-beta). Therefore, we initiated a Phase I trial with a combination of IL-2 and IFN-beta three times weekly. The IFN-beta was administered i.v. Initially, the IL-2 was administered s.c. However, neutralizing(More)
Cancer patients were given a recombinant mutant interferon β by alternating IM and IV injections with weekly escalation of doses from 0.1 to 400 million U. Antibodies specific to the interferon of the IgG class were detected in 24 of 30 patients using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum from only 1 of the 30 patients had detectable ability(More)
The goal of our study was to determine whether recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) could modify the recurrence pattern of chronic herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital infection in guinea pigs. Animals that developed symptomatic acute HSV-2 infection were distributed at 14 days after viral inoculation into several treatment groups, which were similar(More)
Sixty-six patients with disseminated malignancy were treated with recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) on a three times a week (M, W, F) IV-bolus injection schedule. Doses ranged from 0.001 to 14.0 x 10(6) units/M2 body surface area. Consecutive groups of 3-5 patients were placed on each dose level and were maintained on that level except for dosage(More)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and beta-interferon (beta-IFN) are cytokines with profound immunobiological effects on T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell activity; IL-2 also induces lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell cytotoxicity in humans. Both lymphokines induce antineoplastic activity against several refractory tumors. This Phase I study of 50 patients(More)
A synthetic mutant of beta-interferon, produced by recombinant DNA technology, was prepared with serine substituted for the naturally occurring cysteine at amino acid 17. This molecule, after purification to homogeneity, was evaluated in 23 patients with cancer for tolerated doses, safety, and pharmacokinetics. Each patient was begun on twice weekly(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA was detected and quantified in the serum of HIV-seropositive individuals using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a nonisotopic enzyme-linked affinity assay. Of 55 HIV-infected patients who were not receiving therapy, serum HIV RNA was detected in 9 of 19 who were asymptomatic, 11 of 16 with AIDS-related complex(More)