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The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the fourth of four papers. Here, we examine the phases of a clinical trial program, the elements, types, and(More)
To test the osmoregulatory rules of Schwann cell aldose reductase (AR) and myo-inositol, JS1 Schwann cells were grown under control and hyperosmotic conditions with and without excess glucose or galactose. JS1 cells cultured in control conditions possessed AR protein and activity that were not altered by the inclusion of 25 mM glucose or galactose.(More)
The effect of nitrous oxide (N2O) on the MAC of enflurane, halothane, and isoflurane was determined in male rats. Each rat received either enflurane, halothane, or isoflurane, along with 0%, 15%, or 75% N2O. Anesthetic equilibration was verified by mass spectrometry sampling of end-tidal gases. MAC was determined at each N2O concentration by the standard(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between in vivo measurements of optic disc topography and histomorphometric measurements of optic nerve fiber number in glaucoma. METHODS Both eyes of 10 monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with laser-induced glaucoma in the right eye were studied. Optic disc topography was measured in vivo with a confocal scanning laser(More)
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the third of four papers. It examines inclusion and exclusion criteria that can influence the design and analysis(More)
A quantitative, in situ experimental method was developed employing the rat sciatic nerve to study the neurotoxicity of local anesthetic solutions applied directly to an intact peripheral nerve bundle. One-milliliter volumes of 2-chloroprocaine, 3%; tetracaine, 1%; lidocaine, 2%; bupivacaine, 0.75%; or sodium chloride, 0.2%; were injected with a 30-gauge(More)
Despite early descriptions of hypertrophic Schwann cells and onion-bulb formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy, clinical and experimental studies have emphasized axonal pathology. In recent years, the Schwann cell has been further implicated in diabetic neuropathy because it is the primary intrafascicular location for the first enzyme of the polyol(More)
Patients with diabetes may have peripheral neuropathy, which may have clinical implications for the use of regional nerve block. The effects of local anesthetics on nerve conduction and nerve fiber injury were tested in control rats and at 4 weeks after the onset of diabetes in rats injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Nerve conduction(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether memantine as a treatment for glaucoma prevents neuron shrinkage in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the major target for retinal ganglion cells. METHODS Sixteen monkeys with right-eye unilateral experimental glaucoma for 14 months were studied and treated with memantine (n = 9) or vehicle only (n = 7). Left lateral geniculate(More)