Michael W. Kalichman

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Despite early descriptions of hypertrophic Schwann cells and onion-bulb formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy, clinical and experimental studies have emphasized axonal pathology. In recent years, the Schwann cell has been further implicated in diabetic neuropathy because it is the primary intrafascicular location for the first enzyme of the polyol(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether memantine as a treatment for glaucoma prevents neuron shrinkage in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the major target for retinal ganglion cells. METHODS Sixteen monkeys with right-eye unilateral experimental glaucoma for 14 months were studied and treated with memantine (n = 9) or vehicle only (n = 7). Left lateral geniculate(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between in vivo measurements of optic disc topography and histomorphometric measurements of optic nerve fiber number in glaucoma. METHODS Both eyes of 10 monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with laser-induced glaucoma in the right eye were studied. Optic disc topography was measured in vivo with a confocal scanning laser(More)
The effects of GABA-modulating drugs were assessed in a pharmacological study of amygdala-kindled seizures in the rat. Fully-kindled subjects were tested with a randomized dose regimen, including drug vehicle, for each of seven drugs. Afterdischarge duration, motor seizure latency, motor seizure duration and motor seizure stage were scored. The GABA(More)
PURPOSE To assess relative changes in different tissue components of optic nerve and their relationship to nerve fiber loss in the experimental monkey model of glaucoma. METHODS Chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced by laser trabeculoplasty in the right eye of eight monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Both experimental right optic nerves and(More)
The hypothesis that the accumulation of endoneurial edema can exert forces sufficient to occlude transperineurial vessels was tested using light microscopy and computer-assisted morphometry in rat sciatic nerve. Experimental nerves were exposed to a concentration of 10% procaine HCl, which from previous studies has been demonstrated to routinely produce an(More)
Training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) is required for many research trainees nationwide, but little is known about its effectiveness. For a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of a short-term course in RCR, medical students participating in an NIH-funded summer research program at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) were(More)
The role of the enzyme aldose reductase in nerve homeostasis was examined by treating rats with an aldose reductase inhibitor. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with Ponalrestat (25 mg/kg/day) or with excipient alone for 4 to 12 weeks before examining electrophysiologic function, endoneurial fluid electrolyte concentrations, nerve polyol levels, water(More)
The blood-nerve movement of a small molecular weight non-electrolyte was studied in control and galactose-fed rats by measuring the permeability-surface area (PSA) product of the blood-nerve interface to [14C]mannitol in sciatic nerve using an in vivo injection method. PSA products were measured after 9 to 11 months of feeding control rats a diet containing(More)
A quantitative, in situ experimental method was developed employing the rat sciatic nerve to study the neurotoxicity of local anesthetic solutions applied directly to an intact peripheral nerve bundle. One-milliliter volumes of 2-chloroprocaine, 3%; tetracaine, 1%; lidocaine, 2%; bupivacaine, 0.75%; or sodium chloride, 0.2%; were injected with a 30-gauge(More)