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The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the fourth of four papers. Here, we examine the phases of a clinical trial program, the elements, types, and(More)
To test the osmoregulatory rules of Schwann cell aldose reductase (AR) and myo-inositol, JS1 Schwann cells were grown under control and hyperosmotic conditions with and without excess glucose or galactose. JS1 cells cultured in control conditions possessed AR protein and activity that were not altered by the inclusion of 25 mM glucose or galactose.(More)
The importance of responsible conduct of research (RCR) is widely recognized, but the necessary role for RCR education is limited by three significant challenges. First, the stated goals and purpose of RCR education are diverse, inconsistent, and sometimes not feasible. RCR is variably defined as knowing and following the rules, being a moral person, having(More)
The effect of nitrous oxide (N2O) on the MAC of enflurane, halothane, and isoflurane was determined in male rats. Each rat received either enflurane, halothane, or isoflurane, along with 0%, 15%, or 75% N2O. Anesthetic equilibration was verified by mass spectrometry sampling of end-tidal gases. MAC was determined at each N2O concentration by the standard(More)
Quantitative measurements of endoneurial edema, cytoplasmic lipid droplets, nerve fiber injury and Schwann cell damage were used to elucidate the pathogenesis of local anesthetic-induced injury to sciatic nerve in the rat. All histopathologic measurements were conducted on rat sciatic nerves removed at 48 hr after the extraneural injection of one of three(More)
OBJECTIVE Review evidence for possible physiologic mechanisms by which local anesthetics cause nerve injury was reviewed. METHODS Published clinical case reports, and both in vivo and in vitro experimental studies in animals, were reviewed. Reports with direct bearing on possible mechanisms of local anesthetic neurotoxicity were included. RESULTS There(More)
Two chemically distinct aldose reductase inhibitors, ponalrestat and tolrestat, were tested against laser Doppler blood flow and conduction deficits in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. The effects of two months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and aldose reductase inhibition on body weight, plasma glucose, and nerve sugars and polyols were comparable(More)
The hypothesis that the accumulation of endoneurial edema can exert forces sufficient to occlude transperineurial vessels was tested using light microscopy and computer-assisted morphometry in rat sciatic nerve. Experimental nerves were exposed to a concentration of 10% procaine HCl, which from previous studies has been demonstrated to routinely produce an(More)