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It has been proposed that certain adverse early experiences may play a role in determining subsequent susceptibility to adult anxiety and affective disorders and this relationship may be the result of altered neurodevelopment of the noradrenergic and/or serotonergic systems. In this study of nonhuman primates, the predictability of foraging requirements for(More)
Bonnet macaques that had been reared from 3 to 6 months of age in experimental environments that appeared to adversely affect their ability to separate from mother to explore a novel physical environment in dyadic assessments shortly after the rearing experience were tested during late adolescence, an average of 2.5 years later, under conditions of(More)
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of presenting brief video of conspecifics to socially housed bonnet macaques as a reward for performing a joystick task. Using a joystick, subjects tracked a moving target with the cursor on a computer monitor. In Exp. 1, subjects completed significantly more joystick trials for food reward than(More)
Research has shown that in conjunction with genetic factors, significant aspects of non-human primate development are influenced by the infant's physical and social environment. In addition to the direct impact of the environment on the infant, the infant's attachment relationship with the mother is seen as the primary mediating factor in shaping these(More)
12 bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) mother-infant dyads were studied. For 14 weeks, beginning when the infants were a mean age of 11.2 weeks, the dyads were housed and observed under different foraging-demand conditions for the mothers: 6 dyads in a low-foraging-demand (LFD) condition and 6 dyads in a variable-foraging-demand (VFD) conditions. For VFD(More)
A number of studies have now indicated that monkeys of several species will perform hundreds of food-rewarded joystick tasks on a daily basis. Our goal in this study was to identify the level of joystick task performance that could be maintained by 10 sec. of live, color video of a conspecific social group contingent upon the completion of a joystick task.(More)
To assess the developmental consequences of rearing environments for 12 infant bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), infants from 2 environments, either low foraging demand (LFD) or variable foraging demand (VFD) for their mothers, were observed under 2 test conditions after the completion of the differential rearing treatment. One of the test conditions(More)
Three individually housed bonnet macaque males were given 75 weeks of continuous access to a joystick task with a reward choice of either viewing live color video of a bonnet group or obtaining a banana-flavored food treat. Here we report data for weeks 44-75 following a change in the stimulus group displayed in the video. The new stimulus group enhanced(More)
A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual(More)