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Our failure to produce truly non-thrombogenic materials may reflect a failure to fully understand the mechanisms of biomaterial-associated thrombosis. The community has focused on minimizing coagulation or minimizing platelet adhesion and activation. We have infrequently considered the interactions between the two although we are generally familiar with(More)
Are truly inert biomaterials feasible? Recent mathematical models of coagulation which are reviewed here suggest that such materials are impossible. This conclusion, which is certainly consistent with our collective experimental evidence, arises from the calculation that conversion of Factor XI to XIa never drops to zero even at the highest flow rates and(More)
A process for the microencapsulation of mammalian cells in a commercially available water-insoluble polyacrylate (EUDRAGIT RL) is described, and the effects of process parameters are outlined The polymer dissolved in diethyl phthalate was pumped along the annulus formed from two concentric needles, while the cell suspension was pumped inside the inner(More)
Encapsulation of cells in a membrane prior to implantation holds potential for controlling the adverse immune response that may be generated against the transplanted cells, by physically isolating the cells from the host's immune system. If successful, encapsulation eliminates or minimizes the adverse effects of immunosuppressive therapy and permits the use(More)
Angiopathies are one of the leading underlying causes of morbidity in diabetic patients. Poorly managed blood glucose levels contribute to vascular defects that manifest themselves in numerous different clinical conditions, including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral artery disease, and compromised wound healing. The angiopoietin family (Angs(More)
Microencapsulation of dopamine-secreting cells in biocompatible, semi-permeable polymer membranes has been proposed as an alternative strategy for dopamine replacement for Parkinson's disease. In order to assess the viability of this proposal, dopamine-secreting PC12 cells were immunoisolated via microencapsulation in a 75:25 2-hydroxyethyl(More)
A simple technique has been devised for preparing ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer microspheres containing macromolecular drugs. Beads with good sphericity were formed by a simple extrusion process that can easily be repeated by any laboratory without special equipment. The extruded droplets gelled on immediate contact with cold ethanol in a dry ice-ethanol(More)
While the physiologic role of platelet microparticles may include a stable, physical dispersion of concentrated surface procoagulant activity the mechanism(s) of platelet vesiculation remains unknown. We demonstrate using flow cytometric methods a central role for the beta 3 integrin glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex and its ligand tetrapeptide(More)
We introduce the microfluidic organoids for drug screening (MODS) platform, a digital microfluidic system that is capable of generating arrays of individually addressable, free-floating, three-dimensional hydrogel-based microtissues (or 'organoids'). Here, we focused on liver organoids, driven by the need for early-stage screening methods for hepatotoxicity(More)
Tissue engineering is one approach to address the donor-organ shortage, but to attain clinically significant viable cell densities in thick tissues, laboratory-constructed tissues must have an internal vascular supply. We have adopted a biomimetic approach and assembled microscale modular components, consisting of submillimeter-sized collagen gel rods(More)