Michael V. Osier

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Variants of different Class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes have been shown to be associated with an effect that is protective against alcoholism. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that the two sites showing the association are in linkage disequilibrium and has identified the ADH1B Arg47His site as causative, with the ADH1C Ile349Val site(More)
The mode of cadmium-induced cell death was investigated in a rat lung epithelial cell line. Cells, grown to near confluence, were exposed to 0-30 microM CdCl2 for 0-72 h. Phase contrast microscopy and fluorescent nuclear staining showed that Cd caused morphological alterations in lung epithelial cells that are characteristic of apoptosis. These changes(More)
Two of the three class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes (ADH2 and ADH3) encode known functional variants that act on alcohol with different efficiencies. Variants at both these genes have been implicated in alcoholism in some populations because allele frequencies differ between alcoholics and controls. Specifically, controls have higher frequencies of(More)
To study the insulin effects on gene expression in skeletal muscle, muscle biopsies were obtained from 20 insulin sensitive individuals before and after euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. Using microarray analysis, we identified 779 insulin-responsive genes. Particularly noteworthy were effects on 70 transcription factors, and an extensive influence on(More)
Enzymes encoded by two gene families, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), mediate alcohol metabolism in humans. Allelic variants have been identified that alter metabolic rates and influence risk for alcoholism. Specifically, ADH1B*47His (previously ADH2-2) and ALDH2-2 have been shown to confer protection against alcoholism,(More)
The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family of enzymes catalyzes the reversible oxidation of alcohol to acetaldehyde. Seven ADH genes exist in a segment of ~370 kb on 4q21. Products of the three class I ADH genes that share 95% sequence identity are believed to play the major role in the first step of ethanol metabolism. Because the common belief that selection(More)
Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the Western world, its incidence is increasing, and it is frequently metastatic at presentation, at which stage patient survival statistics are grim. In addition, there are no useful biofluid markers for this disease, such that diagnosis is dependent on imaging techniques that are not generally used for(More)
BACKGROUND The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes have been repeatedly associated with protection against alcoholism. Until now, only four protein coding variants have been identified (ADH1C Arg271Gln, Ile349Val, ADH1B Arg47His, and Arg369Cys), and only two of these (ADH1CIle349Val and ADH1B Arg47His) have been routinely tested in association studies with(More)
Elaboration of ALFRED (http://alfred.med.yale.edu) is being continued in two directions. One of which is developing tools for efficiently annotating the entries and checking the integrity of the data already in the database while the other is to increase the quantity and accessibility of data. Information contained in ALFRED such as, polymorphic sites,(More)
Our laboratory has developed a method of particle exposure whereby anesthetized rats intratracheally inhale, at a regulated breathing rate and pressure, an aerosolized test material. This method is capable of delivering considerable doses in a short time period and, unlike the commonly used method of intratracheal instillation, does so with an even particle(More)