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The mode of cadmium-induced cell death was investigated in a rat lung epithelial cell line. Cells, grown to near confluence, were exposed to 0-30 microM CdCl2 for 0-72 h. Phase contrast microscopy and fluorescent nuclear staining showed that Cd caused morphological alterations in lung epithelial cells that are characteristic of apoptosis. These changes(More)
Two of the three class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes (ADH2 and ADH3) encode known functional variants that act on alcohol with different efficiencies. Variants at both these genes have been implicated in alcoholism in some populations because allele frequencies differ between alcoholics and controls. Specifically, controls have higher frequencies of(More)
We have developed a publicly accessible database (ALFRED, the ALlele FREquency Database) that catalogues allele frequency data for a wide range of population samples and DNA polymorphisms. This database is web-accessible through our laboratory (Kidd Lab) Web site: http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd. ALFRED currently contains data on 60 populations and(More)
Elaboration of ALFRED (http://alfred.med.yale.edu) is being continued in two directions. One of which is developing tools for efficiently annotating the entries and checking the integrity of the data already in the database while the other is to increase the quantity and accessibility of data. Information contained in ALFRED such as, polymorphic sites,(More)
ALFRED (the ALelle FREquency Database) is designed to store and disseminate frequencies of alleles at human polymorphic sites for multiple populations, primarily for the population genetics and molecular anthropology communities. Currently ALFRED has information on over 180 polymorphic sites for more than 70 populations. Since our initial release of the(More)
BACKGROUND The development of software tools that analyze microarray data in the context of genetic knowledgebases is being pursued by multiple research groups using different methods. A common problem for many of these tools is how to correct for multiple statistical testing since simple corrections are overly conservative and more sophisticated(More)
Variants of different Class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes have been shown to be associated with an effect that is protective against alcoholism. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that the two sites showing the association are in linkage disequilibrium and has identified the ADH1B Arg47His site as causative, with the ADH1C Ile349Val site(More)
The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family of enzymes catalyzes the reversible oxidation of alcohol to acetaldehyde. Seven ADH genes exist in a segment of ~370 kb on 4q21. Products of the three class I ADH genes that share 95% sequence identity are believed to play the major role in the first step of ethanol metabolism. Because the common belief that selection(More)
Our laboratory has developed a method of intratracheal inhalation whereby rats can be exposed to high aerosol concentrations, resulting in high lung particle burdens in a short time period with deposition occurring directly in the lower respiratory tract, thus avoiding many drawbacks of larger nose-only or whole body inhalation systems. In this report, we(More)
Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the Western world, its incidence is increasing, and it is frequently metastatic at presentation, at which stage patient survival statistics are grim. In addition, there are no useful biofluid markers for this disease, such that diagnosis is dependent on imaging techniques that are not generally used for(More)