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The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that is important in adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis and which depends on interactions with co-activators, including steroid receptor co-activating factor-1 (SRC-1). Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the human(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many risk loci for complex diseases, but effect sizes are typically small and information on the underlying biological processes is often lacking. Associations with metabolic traits as functional intermediates can overcome these problems and potentially inform individualized therapy. Here we report a(More)
Hypoxia can act as an initial trigger to induce erythrocyte sickling and eventual end organ damage in sickle cell disease (SCD). Many factors and metabolites are altered in response to hypoxia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Using metabolomic profiling, we found that the steady-state concentration of adenosine in the blood was(More)
Ras proteins participate as a molecular switch in the early steps of the signal transduction pathway that is associated with cell growth and differentiation. When the protein is in its GTP complexed form it is active in signal transduction, whereas it is inactive in its GDP complexed form. A comparison of eight three-dimensional structures of ras proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease progression. Current diagnostic tests, such as glycemic indicators, have limitations in the early detection of insulin resistant individuals. We searched for novel biomarkers identifying these at-risk subjects. METHODS Using mass spectrometry, non-targeted(More)
Retinoic-acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) are members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily that bind to DNA as heterodimers with retinoid-X receptors (RXRs). PPAR-RXR heterodimers can be activated by PPAR or RXR ligands, whereas RAR-RXR heterodimers are selectively activated by RAR ligands(More)
Cyclic nucleotides are second messengers that are essential in vision, muscle contraction, neurotransmission, exocytosis, cell growth, and differentiation. These molecules are degraded by a family of enzymes known as phosphodiesterases, which serve a critical function by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. We have determined(More)
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a lineage-specific cytokine for eosinophilpoiesis and plays an important part in diseases associated with increased eosinophils, such as asthma. Human IL-5 is a disulphide-linked homodimer with 115 amino-acid residues in each chain. The crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution reveals a novel two-domain structure, with each domain(More)
Genome-wide association scans with high-throughput metabolic profiling provide unprecedented insights into how genetic variation influences metabolism and complex disease. Here we report the most comprehensive exploration of genetic loci influencing human metabolism thus far, comprising 7,824 adult individuals from 2 European population studies. We report(More)