Michael V. Airola

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HAMP domains are widespread prokaryotic signaling modules found as single domains or poly-HAMP chains in both transmembrane and soluble proteins. The crystal structure of a three-unit poly-HAMP chain from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa soluble receptor Aer2 defines a universal parallel four-helix bundle architecture for diverse HAMP domains. Two contiguous(More)
HAMP domains are signal relay modules in >26,000 receptors of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea that mediate processes involved in chemotaxis, pathogenesis, and biofilm formation. We identify two HAMP conformations distinguished by a four- to two-helix packing transition at the C-termini that send opposing signals in bacterial chemoreceptors. Crystal(More)
Sphingolipids are an important class of lipid molecules that play fundamental roles in our cells and body. Beyond a structural role, it is now clearly established that sphingolipids serve as bioactive signaling molecules to regulate diverse processes including inflammatory signaling, cell death, proliferation, and pain sensing. Sphingolipid metabolites have(More)
Over-expression of heme binding proteins in Escherichia coli often results in sub-optimal heme incorporation and the amount of heme-bound protein produced usually varies with the protein of interest. Complete heme incorporation is important for biochemical characterization, spectroscopy, structural studies, and for the production of homogeneous commercial(More)
The mammalian circadian clock synchronizes physical and metabolic activity with the diurnal cycle through a transcriptional-posttranslational feedback loop. An additional feedback mechanism regulating clock timing has been proposed to involve oscillation in heme availability. Period 2 (PER2), an integral component in the negative feedback loop that(More)
Our understanding of the functions of ceramide signaling has advanced tremendously over the past decade. In this review, we focus on the roles and regulation of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), an enzyme that generates the bioactive lipid ceramide through the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid sphingomyelin. A large body of work has now implicated(More)
Bacterial receptors typically contain modular architectures with distinct functional domains that combine to send signals in response to stimuli. Although the properties of individual components have been investigated in many contexts, there is little information about how diverse sets of modules work together in full-length receptors. Here, we investigate(More)
Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) is a ceramide-generating enzyme that has been implicated in growth arrest, apoptosis and exosome secretion. Although previous studies have reported transcriptional upregulation of nSMase2 in response to daunorubicin, through Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, the role of the DNA damage pathway in regulating nSMase2(More)
Neutral ceramidase (nCDase) catalyzes conversion of the apoptosis-associated lipid ceramide to sphingosine, the precursor for the proliferative factor sphingosine-1-phosphate. As an enzyme regulating the balance of ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, nCDase is emerging as a therapeutic target for cancer. Here, we present the 2.6-Å crystal structure of(More)