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Cytosolic bacterial pathogens activate the cytosolic surveillance pathway (CSP) and induce innate immune responses, but how the host detects vacuolar pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly understood. We show that M. tuberculosis also initiates the CSP upon macrophage infection via limited perforation of the phagosome membrane mediated by the(More)
Ubiquitin-mediated targeting of intracellular bacteria to the autophagy pathway is a key innate defence mechanism against invading microbes, including the important human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the ubiquitin ligases responsible for catalysing ubiquitin chains that surround intracellular bacteria are poorly understood. The parkin(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses the ESX-1 secretion system to deliver virulence proteins during infection of host cells. Here we report a mechanism of posttranscriptional control of ESX-1 mediated by MycP1, a M. tuberculosis serine protease. We show that MycP1 is required for ESX-1 secretion but that, unexpectedly, genetic inactivation of MycP1 protease(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the primary causative agent of human tuberculosis, has killed more people than any other bacterial pathogen in human history and remains one of the most important transmissible diseases worldwide. Because of the long-standing interaction of Mtb with humans, it is no surprise that human mucosal and innate immune cells have(More)
This review summarizes recent evidence from knock-out mice on the role of reactive oxygen intermediates and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) in mammalian immunity. Reflections on redundancy in immunity help explain an apparent paradox: the phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase are each nonredundant, and yet also mutually redundant, in(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired signaling in the IFN-γ/IL-12 pathway causes susceptibility to severe disseminated infections with mycobacteria and dimorphic yeasts. Dominant gain-of-function mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) have been associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. OBJECTIVE We sought to identify the molecular(More)
The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly(More)
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide radical to hydrogen peroxide. Periplasmic localization of bacterial Cu,Zn-SOD has suggested a role of this enzyme in defense against extracellular phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species. Sequence analysis of regions flanking the Salmonella typhimurium sodC gene encoding Cu,Zn-SOD(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) expresses a set of genes known as the dormancy regulon in vivo. These genes are expressed in vitro in response to nitric oxide (NO) or hypoxia, conditions used to model MTB persistence in latent infection. Although NO, a macrophage product that inhibits respiration, and hypoxia are likely triggers in vivo, additional cues(More)
Activation of the DNA-dependent cytosolic surveillance pathway in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection stimulates ubiquitin-dependent autophagy and inflammatory cytokine production, and plays an important role in host defense against M. tuberculosis. However, the identity of the host sensor for M. tuberculosis DNA is unknown. Here we show that(More)