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Studies over the past decade have demonstrated that lactate is produced aerobically during brain activation and it has been suggested to be an obligatory aerobic energy substrate postischemia. It has been also hypothesized, based on in vitro studies, that lactate, produced by glia in large amounts during activation and/or ischemia/hypoxia, is transported(More)
A dual linear-flow chamber for comparative studies using brain slices is described. Electrophysiological and ultrastructural analysis of rat hippocampal slices incubated in the chamber showed that its two compartments allows performance of reliable paired comparison studies in a highly efficient manner.
In vitro brain slices are the preparation of choice for the detailed examination of local circuit properties in mammalian brain. However it is the investigator's responsibility to verify that the circuits under investigation are indeed confined within the boundaries of the functional region of the slice used. The medium in which the slice is maintained is(More)
This paper discusses the design of a physical and digital system intended to allow for easy manipulation and interaction with the tremendous amount of options present in advanced multimedia devices, such as digital cable television. As user demand for access to large quantities of data increases, and cable companies offer more choices to their audiences,(More)
OBJECTIVE Many studies indicate a genetic predisposition to bipolar disorder (BD) and suggest that a number of abnormal genes are involved in its development. In this study, we used DNA microarray technology to analyze gene-expression profiles in the postmortem frontal cortex of subjects with BD. METHODS Microarray hybridization was performed using human(More)
Aggravation of neuronal damage by preischemic hyperglycemia, i.e. the glucose paradox of cerebral ischemia, is a well-established phenomenon that has prompted clinicians around the world to closely monitor and control blood glucose levels in surgical cases at high risk for ischemic episodes. The widely prevalent idea that lactic acidosis is responsible for(More)
This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution , reselling , loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents(More)
The rat hippocampal slice preparation was used in the present study to demonstrate the ability of adult brain tissue to adapt to anoxic and hypoxic conditions. Adaptation was induced by pre-exposure of hippocampal slices to a short (5 min) anoxic episode. The evoked electrical activity of pre-exposed slices recovered from a subsequent, longer anoxic insult,(More)
The viability and stability of the in vitro rat hippocampal slice preparation were assessed using electrophysiological and electron microscopical means. Slices exhibited lifetimes of 6-19 h. Correlation between the duration of electrical activity and changes in ultrastructure of these slices was found. Possible reasons for the wide variability in lifetime(More)
Aerobic lactate utilization is crucial for recovery of neuronal function posthypoxia in vitro. In vivo models of cerebral ischemia pose a conceptual challenge when compared to in vitro models. First, the glucose paradox of cerebral ischemia, namely, the aggravation of delayed neuronal damage by preischemic hyperglycemia, cannot be reproduced in vitro.(More)