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We followed evolutionary change in 12 populations of Escherichia coli propagated for 10,000 generations in identical environments. Both morphology (cell size) and fitness (measured in competition with the ancestor) evolved rapidly for the first 2000 generations or so after the populations were introduced into the experimental environment, but both were(More)
The contributions of adaptation, chance, and history to the evolution of fitness and cell size were measured in two separate experiments using bacteria. In both experiments, populations propagated in identical environments achieved similar fitnesses, regardless of prior history or subsequent chance events. In contrast, the evolution of cell size, a trait(More)
The SUC multigene family of the single-celled yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is polymorphic, with genes varying both in number and activity. All of the genes encode invertase, an enzyme that is secreted to digest sucrose outside of the cell. This communal endeavour creates the potential for individual cells to defect (cheat) by stealing the sugar digested(More)
The potential benefits of cooperation in microorganisms can be undermined by genetic conflict within social groups, which can take the form of 'cheating'. For cooperation to succeed as an evolutionary strategy, the negative effects of such conflict must somehow be either prevented or mitigated. To generate an interpretive framework for future research in(More)
The distribution of the number of pairwise differences calculated from comparisons between n haploid genomes has frequently been used as a starting point for testing the hypothesis of linkage equilibrium. For this purpose the variance of the pairwise differences, VD, is used as a test statistic to evaluate the null hypothesis that all loci are in linkage(More)
This study investigates the physiological manifestation of adaptive evolutionary change in 12 replicate populations of Escherichia coli that were propagated for 2000 generations in a glucose-limited environment. Representative genotypes from each population were assayed for fitness relative to their common ancestor in the experimental glucose environment(More)
It is widely assumed that resistance to consumers (e.g., predators or pathogens) comes at a "cost," that is, when the consumer is absent the resistant organisms are less fit than their susceptible counterparts. It is unclear what factors determine this cost. We demonstrate that epistasis between genes that confer resistance to two different consumers can(More)
A central feature of all adaptive radiations is morphological divergence, but the phenotypic innovations that are responsible are rarely known. When selected in a spatially structured environment, populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge. Among the divergent morphs is a mutant type termed "wrinkly spreader" (WS) that colonizes a(More)
BACKGROUND The obesity epidemic, recognized in developed nations for decades, is now a worldwide phenomenon. All age groups are affected, including women of childbearing age, fueling concern that maternal obesity before and during pregnancy and lactation impairs developmental establishment of body weight regulatory mechanisms in the fetus or infant, causing(More)