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The arrival of electronic voting has generated considerable controversy, mostly about its vulnerability to fraud. By comparison, virtually no attention has been given to its usability, i.e., voters' ability to vote as they intend, which was central to the controversy surrounding the 2000 US presidential election. Yet it is hard to imagine a domain of(More)
Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are abundant soil-dwelling herbivores which can inflict considerable damage to field crops. In Europe up to 40 species occur, differing in their ecology and pest status. Their distribution in the larval stage, however, has rarely been assessed because of the considerable effort in collecting wireworms and the(More)
Predator body size and prey quality are important factors driving prey choice and consumption rates. Both factors might affect prey detection success in PCR-based gut content analysis, potentially resulting in over- or underestimation of feeding rates. Experimental evidence, however, is scarce. We examined how body size and prey quality affect prey DNA(More)
1. Multiplex PCR is a valuable tool in many biological studies but it is a multifaceted procedure that has to be planned and optimised thoroughly to achieve robust and meaningful results. In particular, primer concentrations have to be adjusted to assure an even amplification of all targeted DNA fragments. Until now, total DNA extracts were used for(More)
Although a significant proportion of plant tissue is located in roots and other below-ground parts of plants, little is known on the dietary choices of root-feeding insects. This is caused by a lack of adequate methodology which would allow tracking below-ground trophic interactions between insects and plants. Here, we present a DNA-based approach to(More)
Expert reviews, laboratory tests, and a large-scale field study of one paper/optical scan and five electronic voting systems suggested numerous possible improvements. Changes could be made in all aspects of the process—signing-on, navigating across the ballot, checking and changing votes, casting write-in votes, and reviewing and casting the ballot. A paper(More)
Molecular methods have become an important tool for studying feeding interactions under natural conditions. Despite their growing importance, many methodological aspects have not yet been evaluated but need to be considered to fully exploit the potential of this approach. Using feeding experiments with high alpine carabid beetles and lycosid spiders, we(More)
Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these(More)