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BACKGROUND Ramucirumab is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets the extracellular domain of VEGFR-2. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of treatment with docetaxel plus ramucirumab or placebo as second-line treatment for patients with stage IV non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) after platinum-based therapy. METHODS In this multicentre,(More)
Although the work of learning scientists and instructional designers has brought about countless curricula, designs, and theoretical claims, the community has been less active in communicating the explicit and implicit critical social agendas that result (or could result) from their work. It is our belief that the community of learning scientists is well(More)
BACKGROUND There is controversy whether patients diagnosed with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) should be treated according to protocols for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) or small cell lung cancers (SCLC), especially with regard to the administration of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). This study was set up to determine the(More)
This study used technology-rich ethnography (TRE) to examine the use of game development in a high school computer programming class for the development of 21st century skills. High school students created games for elementary school students while obtaining formative feedback from their younger clients. Our experience suggests that in the teaching of(More)
The question whether a set of formulae Γ implies a formula ϕ is fundamental. The present paper studies the complexity of the above implication problem for propositional formulae that are built from a systematically restricted set of Boolean connectives. We give a complete complexity classification for all sets of Boolean functions in the meaning of Post's(More)
The satisfiability problems for CTL and CTL are known to be EXPTIME-complete, resp. 2EXPTIME-complete (Fischer and Ladner (1979), Vardi and Stockmeyer (1985)). For fragments that use less temporal or propositional operators, the complexity may decrease. This paper undertakes a systematic study of satisfiability for CTL-and CTL-formulae over restricted sets(More)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in a multiplicity of cancer-related signal transduction pathways like cellular proliferation, adhesion, migration, neoangiogenesis and apoptosis inhibition, all of them important features of cancerogenesis and tumour progression. The inhibition of this receptor has been discovered as a suitable(More)
Default logic was introduced by Reiter in 1980. In 1992, Gottlob classified the complexity of the extension existence problem for propositional default logic as Σ p 2-complete, and the complexity of the credulous and skeptical reasoning problem as Σ p 2-complete, resp. Π p 2-complete. Additionally, he investigated restrictions on the default rules, i.e.,(More)
In this article the trajectory of an online course in which graduate students collaboratively investigated and shared their personal experiences with respect to adult development is described. For this study, naturalistic inquiry was used to gain a holistic view of this semester-long course and to identify the specific emergent issues that characterized(More)
The satisfiability problem of hybrid logics with the downarrow binder is known to be undecidable. This initiated a research program on decidable and tractable fragments. In this paper, we investigate the effect of restricting the propositional part of the language on decidability and on the complexity of the satisfiability problem over arbitrary,(More)