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The use of layered architectures for modeling autonomous agents has become popular over the past few years. In this paper, different approaches how these architectures can be build are discussed. A special case, namely vertically layered architectures is discussed by the example of the INTERRAP agent model. The paper focusses on the lower levels of the(More)
The EU's structural reform agenda attaches a considerable weight to the establishment of efficiently working and integrated EU financial markets. While there is a firm consensus that a well-functioning financial sector is a precondition for the efficient allocation of resources and the exploitation of an economy's growth potential, the economic literature(More)
  • Maurice Obstfeld, Ines Drumond, Pierre‐olivier Gourinchas, Omberline Gras, Alexandr Hobza, Robert Kuenzel +11 others
  • 2013
Because of recent economic crises, financial fragility has regained prominence in both the theory and practice of macroeconomic policy. Consistent with macroeconomic paradigms prevalent at the time, the original architecture of the euro zone assumed that safeguards against inflation and excessive government deficits would suffice to guarantee macroeconomic(More)
We investigated propagation of light through a uniaxial photonic metamaterial composed of three-dimensional gold helices arranged on a two-dimensional square lattice. These nanostructures are fabricated via an approach based on direct laser writing into a positive-tone photoresist followed by electrochemical deposition of gold. For propagation of light(More)
Metamaterials are artificial materials that--unlike natural substances--enable magnetism to be achieved at optical frequencies. The vast majority of photonic metamaterials has been fabricated by electron-beam lithography and evaporation of metal films, both of which are well-established two-dimensional (2D) technologies. Although stacking of three or four(More)