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The pathogenesis of transmissible encephalopathies is associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein, PrP(C), into a conformationally altered oligomeric form, PrP(Sc). Here we report the crystal structure of the human prion protein in dimer form at 2 A resolution. The dimer results from the three-dimensional swapping of the C-terminal helix 3(More)
Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) can be a major economic problem to apple growers in most parts of the world, and resistance breeding provides a sustainable means to control this pest. We report molecular markers for three genes conferring WAA resistance and placing them on two linkage groups (LG) on the genetic map of apple. The Er1 and(More)
A method is described for continuous, nondestructive analysis of xylem-borne mineral nutrients in intact transpiring plants. The method uses the xylem-feeding insect the meadow spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L. [Homoptera: Cercopidae]). This insect will feed from a wide range of plant species and organs. Insect excreta can be collected at all times of the(More)
It is postulated here that significant amounts of calcium will be mobilized into the plant by the scorching of one old leaf. This postulate was tested using large (6 m) tomato plants in the glasshouse. Brief scorching with a blowlamp was shown to release some 35% of the leaf's water into the plant. A range of measurements was used to estimate the kinetics(More)
Displacement transducers were used to demonstrate that localised wounding causes a rapid and systemic increase in leaf thickness in seedlings of wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Iva). These increases are interpreted as reflecting wound-induced hydraulic signals. The duration of the wound-induced increase was found to be about 1 h or more, and it was shown(More)
Rapid and systemic defence responses occur in various higher plants, including the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The long-distance signalling mechanisms which permit these responses are not clear, but three models are currently considered in the literature: phloem transport, hydraulic dispersal in the xylem, and electrical transmission. Experiments(More)
Localised wounding causes rapid and systemic induction of proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The signalling system which coordinates this response is not known. Recent work has shown that systemic hydraulic signals are transmitted from wound sites in tomato, but that these cannot by themselves induce proteinase inhibitors. Here,(More)
A reversed-phase HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS-MS) method was refined for the positional analysis of complex mixtures of TAG. This method has the advantages of speed, ease of automation, and specificity over traditional digestion-based methods for the positional analysis of TAG. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of ammoniated TAG in an(More)
Molecular characterization of tumour material will become increasingly important in selecting patients for clinical trials and offering appropriate treatment for patients in clinical practice. Recent advances in the field have indicated that the molecular characteristics of a tumour can be determined from circulating tumour cells and circulating tumour DNA;(More)
In the presence of auxin, ethylene can promote growth in petioles of N. peltata (S.G. Gmel.) O. Kuntze. Acid buffer will also stimulate growth in the tissue and, in abraded petiole segments, ethylene-stimulated growth is accompanied by a marked acidification of the medium. Auxin stimulates growth in this tissue and, for various auxin and ethylene(More)