Learn More
Among vertebrate classes, fishes exhibit by far the greatest variability in competitive and cooperative behaviors in male reproduction. Scramble competition between reproductive males is one possibility. Another possibility occurs when resources, mates, or locations can be monopolized, in which case males may invest in primary access to fertilizations by(More)
Recent studies on the effect of local mate competition (LMC) on sex ratios have focused on the effect of post-dispersal mating success by males. A higher proportion of males is expected to be produced as the potential for outbreeding increases. Here we demonstrate that males of a haplodiploid ambrosia beetle with LMC disperse to seek additional matings, and(More)
Many studies have attempted to explain the evolution of cooperation, yet little attention has been paid to what factors control the amount or kind of cooperation performed. Kin selection theory suggests that more cooperation, or help, should be given by relatives. However, recent theory suggests that under specific ecological and demographic conditions,(More)
BACKGROUND Recent work on the complexity of life highlights the roles played by evolutionary forces at different levels of individuality. One of the central puzzles in explaining transitions in individuality for entities ranging from complex cells, to multicellular organisms and societies, is how different autonomous units relinquish control over their(More)
Aim. The quantitative genetics underlying correlated behavioural traits (''animal personality") have hitherto been studied mainly in domesticated animals. Here we report the repeatability (R) and heritability (h(2)) of behavioural types in the highly social cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Methods. We tested 1779 individuals repeatedly and calculated(More)
Although evolutionary models of cooperation build on the intuition that costs of the donor and benefits to the receiver are the most general fundamental parameters, it is largely unknown how they affect the decision of animals to cooperate with an unrelated social partner. Here we test experimentally whether costs to the donor and need of the receiver(More)
Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles(More)
Tool-use is widespread among animals, but except in primates the development of this behaviour is poorly known. Here, we report on the first experimental study to our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of tool-use in a bird species. The woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida, endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is a famous textbook example of(More)
Colour pattern diversity can be due to random processes or to natural or sexual selection. Consequently, similarities in colour patterns are not always correlated with common ancestry, but may result from convergent evolution under shared selection pressures or drift. Neolamprologus brichardi and Neolamprologus pulcher have been described as two distinct(More)