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Recent studies on the effect of local mate competition (LMC) on sex ratios have focused on the effect of post-dispersal mating success by males. A higher proportion of males is expected to be produced as the potential for outbreeding increases. Here we demonstrate that males of a haplodiploid ambrosia beetle with LMC disperse to seek additional matings, and(More)
Among vertebrate classes, fishes exhibit by far the greatest variability in competitive and cooperative behaviors in male reproduction. Scramble competition between reproductive males is one possibility. Another possibility occurs when resources, mates, or locations can be monopolized, in which case males may invest in primary access to fertilizations by(More)
Several hypotheses aim to explain the evolution of helping behavior, but conclusive experimental support for evaluating the relative importance of individual hypotheses is still larking We report on two field experiments* conducted to test the "territory inheritance" and "pay-to-stay" hypotheses in the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus(More)
Many studies have attempted to explain the evolution of cooperation, yet little attention has been paid to what factors control the amount or kind of cooperation performed. Kin selection theory suggests that more cooperation, or help, should be given by relatives. However, recent theory suggests that under specific ecological and demographic conditions,(More)
Animal signals may result from construction behaviour and can provide receivers with essential information in various contexts. Here we explore the potential benefits of extended phenotypes with a signalling function as compared to bodily ornaments and behavioural displays. Their independence of the body, their physical persistence and the morphological and(More)
Keywords: Chiroptera communication eavesdropping lesser bulldog bat Noctilio albiventris recognition social behaviour Bats use echolocation for orientation during foraging and navigation. However, it has been suggested that echolocation calls may also have a communicative function, for instance between roost members. In principle, this seems possible(More)
Social interactions are central to most animals and have a fundamental impact upon the phenotype of an individual. Social behavior (social interactions among conspecifics) represents a central challenge to the integration of the functional and mechanistic bases of complex behavior. Traditionally, studies of proximate and ultimate elements of social behavior(More)
BACKGROUND Recent work on the complexity of life highlights the roles played by evolutionary forces at different levels of individuality. One of the central puzzles in explaining transitions in individuality for entities ranging from complex cells, to multicellular organisms and societies, is how different autonomous units relinquish control over their(More)
Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles(More)