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Several hypotheses aim to explain the evolution of helping behavior, but conclusive experimental support for evaluating the relative importance of individual hypotheses is still larking We report on two field experiments* conducted to test the "territory inheritance" and "pay-to-stay" hypotheses in the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus(More)
Recent studies on the effect of local mate competition (LMC) on sex ratios have focused on the effect of post-dispersal mating success by males. A higher proportion of males is expected to be produced as the potential for outbreeding increases. Here we demonstrate that males of a haplodiploid ambrosia beetle with LMC disperse to seek additional matings, and(More)
Fish exhibit an enormous variety of reproductive patterns. There is external and internal fertilization, simultaneous and sequential hermaphroditism as well as gonochorism, and an extremely widespread occurrence of parasitic reproductive behaviour among males. In most fish species there is a great size range of reproductive males, setting the stage for(More)
Social experience influences the outcome of conflicts such that winners are more likely to win again and losers will more likely lose again, even against different opponents. Although winner and loser effects prevail throughout the animal kingdom and crucially influence social structures, the ultimate and proximate causes for their existence remain unknown.(More)
The evolution of cooperation by direct reciprocity requires that individuals recognize their present partner and remember the outcome of their last encounter with that specific partner. Direct reciprocity thus requires advanced cognitive abilities. Here, we demonstrate that if individuals repeatedly interact within small groups with different partners in a(More)
Environmental conditions are thought to be responsible for the extent and benefits of cooperative breeding in many animal societies, but experimental tests are scarce. We manipulated predator pressure in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher in Lake Tanganyika, where predators have been suggested to influence helper and breeder survival,(More)
How cooperation and altruism among non-relatives can persist in the face of cheating remains a key puzzle in evolutionary biology. Although mechanisms such as direct and indirect reciprocity and limited movement have been put forward to explain such cooperation, they cannot explain cooperation among unfamiliar, highly mobile individuals. Here we show that(More)
Reciprocity is often invoked to explain cooperation. Reciprocity is cognitively demanding, and both direct and indirect reciprocity require that individuals store information about the propensity of their partners to cooperate. By contrast, generalized reciprocity, wherein individuals help on the condition that they received help previously, only relies on(More)
Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles(More)