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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the central nervous system (CNS) pathway for acupuncture stimulation in the human brain by using functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Functional MR imaging of the whole brain was performed in two groups of nine healthy subjects during four stimulation paradigms: real acupuncture at acupoints ST.36 (on(More)
Glial activation and neuroinflammation occur in neurodegenerative disease and brain injury, however their presence in normal brain aging suggests that chronic neuroinflammation may be a factor in age-related dementia. Few studies have investigated the impact of sustained elevation of hippocampal interleukin-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulated(More)
The complete genome sequence of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a delta-proteobacterium, reveals unsuspected capabilities, including evidence of aerobic metabolism, one-carbon and complex carbon metabolism, motility, and chemotactic behavior. These characteristics, coupled with the possession of many two-component sensors and many c-type cytochromes, reveal an(More)
Injections of the dopamine D2 agonist quinpirole (LY 171555) into the nucleus accumbens reduced exploratory locomotion in a dose-dependent manner. Injections of the dopamine D1 agonist SKF 38393 had no effect on exploratory locomotion. The results are consistent with observations from recent electrophysiological and behavioral experiments which suggest a(More)
The anatomical organization and electrophysiological characteristics of a projection from the nucleus accumbens to anteroventral parts of the globus pallidus and to a subpallidal region that includes the substantia innominata (SI), the lateral preoptic area (LPO), and anterior parts of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were investigated in the rat.(More)
This review provides a model for the role of oxidative stress in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiological studies of diet, environmental and behavioral risk factors suggest that oxidative stress is a contributing factor of AMD. Pathological studies indicate that damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an early event(More)
A series of anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral experiments was carried out in the rat to investigate the possible functional significance of a recently demonstrated neural pathway from the substantia innominata of the subpallidal forebrain to the mesencephalic locomotor region. Following injections of the anterogradely transported lectin PHA(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, microRNAs in cancer development have attracted much attention, but their roles in tumorigenesis are still largely unknown. In this study, a functional role of miR-22 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development has been identified. METHODS Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the level of miR-22 transcript in HCC clinical(More)
There is considerable physiological evidence indicating that the medial preoptic area plays an important role in neural circuits mediating ingestive, thermoregulatory, and reproductive behaviors, all of which involve foraging. The current series of anatomical and electrophysiological experiments was therefore designed to characterize a direct projection(More)