Michael T. Howard

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The Blue Obelisk Movement (http://www.blueobelisk.org/) is the name used by a diverse Internet group promoting reusable chemistry via open source software development, consistent and complimentary chemoinformatics research, open data, and open standards. We outline recent examples of cooperation in the Blue Obelisk group: a shared dictionary of algorithms(More)
Mutations affecting the seemingly unrelated gene products, SepN1, a selenoprotein of unknown function, and RyR1, the major component of the ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel, result in an overlapping spectrum of congenital myopathies. To identify the immediate developmental and molecular roles of SepN and RyR in vivo, loss-of-function(More)
Mutations in the DMD gene, encoding the dystrophin protein, are responsible for the dystrophinopathies Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy (XLDC). Mutation analysis has traditionally been challenging, due to the large gene size (79 exons over 2.2 Mb of genomic DNA). We report a very large(More)
Nonsense mutations are usually predicted to function as null alleles due to premature termination of protein translation. However, nonsense mutations in the DMD gene, encoding the dystrophin protein, have been associated with both the severe Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and milder Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) phenotypes. In a large survey, we(More)
It was reported over 65 years ago that chimpanzees, like humans, vary in taste sensitivity to the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). This was suggested to be the result of a shared balanced polymorphism, defining the first, and now classic, example of the effects of balancing selection in great apes. In humans, variable PTC sensitivity is largely(More)
As a result of their ability to induce translational readthrough of stop codons, the aminoglycoside antibiotics are currently being tested for efficacy in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients carrying a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene. We have undertaken a systematic analysis of aminoglycoside-induced readthrough of each stop codon(More)
Incorporation of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, into proteins is specified in all three domains of life by dynamic translational redefinition of UGA codons. In eukarya and archaea, selenocysteine insertion requires a cis-acting selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) usually located in the 3'UTR of selenoprotein mRNAs. Here we present comparative(More)
OBJECTIVE Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) displays a clinical range that is not fully explained by the primary DMD mutations. Ltbp4, encoding latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 4, was previously discovered in a genome-wide scan as a modifier of murine muscular dystrophy. We sought to determine whether LTBP4 genotype influenced DMD(More)
OBJECTIVE The degenerative muscle diseases Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy result from mutations in the DMD gene, which encodes the dystrophin protein. Recent improvements in mutational analysis techniques have resulted in the increasing identification of deep intronic point mutations, which alter splicing such that intronic sequences are(More)
Manifesting carriers of DMD gene mutations may present diagnostic challenges, particularly in the absence of a family history of dystrophinopathy. We review the clinical and genetic features in 15 manifesting carriers identified among 860 subjects within the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a large clinical dystrophinopathy cohort whose members undergo(More)