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The determinant of verapamil-reversible chloroquine resistance (CQR) in a Plasmodium falciparum genetic cross maps to a 36 kb segment of chromosome 7. This segment harbors a 13-exon gene, pfcrt, having point mutations that associate completely with CQR in parasite lines from Asia, Africa, and South America. These data, transfection results, and selection of(More)
Widespread use of antimalarial agents can profoundly influence the evolution of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Recent selective sweeps for drug-resistant genotypes may have restricted the genetic diversity of this parasite, resembling effects attributed in current debates to a historic population bottleneck. Chloroquine-resistant (CQR)(More)
Evolving resistance to artemisinin-based compounds threatens to derail attempts to control malaria. Resistance has been confirmed in western Cambodia and has recently emerged in western Thailand, but is absent from neighboring Laos. Artemisinin resistance results in reduced parasite clearance rates (CRs) after treatment. We used a two-phase strategy to(More)
Genetic investigations of malaria require a genome-wide, high-resolution linkage map of Plasmodium falciparum. A genetic cross was used to construct such a map from 901 markers that fall into 14 inferred linkage groups corresponding to the 14 nuclear chromosomes. Meiotic crossover activity in the genome proved high (17 kilobases per centimorgan) and notably(More)
Quinine (QN) remains effective against Plasmodium falciparum, but its decreasing efficacy is documented from different continents. Multiple genes are likely to contribute to the evolution of QN resistance. To locate genes contributing to QN response variation, we have searched a P. falciparum genetic cross for quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results identify(More)
Aedes aegypti were immune activated by injection with bacteria, and the expression of insect defensins was measured over time. Northern analyses indicated that defensin transcriptional activity continued for at least 21 days after bacterial injection, and up to 10 days after saline inoculation. Mature defensin levels in the haemolymph reached approximately(More)
Genome analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite already is identifying genes relevant to therapeutic- and vaccine-related research. The genetic blueprint of P. falciparum will ultimately need to be understood at multiple levels of an integrated system and will provide a detailed account of the life processes of the parasite and of the(More)
Malaria elimination strategies require surveillance of the parasite population for genetic changes that demand a public health response, such as new forms of drug resistance. Here we describe methods for the large-scale analysis of genetic variation in Plasmodium falciparum by deep sequencing of parasite DNA obtained from the blood of patients with malaria,(More)
The effect of host immune activation on the development of Brugia malayi in one susceptible and four refractory strains of Aedes aegypti and in Armigeres subalbatus was assessed. A. aegypti that were immune activated by the injection of saline or bacteria 24 hr before feeding on a B. malayi-infected gerbil had significantly reduced prevalences and mean(More)
Chloroquine resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with multiple mutations in the digestive vacuole membrane protein PfCRT. The chloroquine-sensitive (CQS) 106/1 line of P. falciparum has six of seven PfCRT mutations consistently found in CQR parasites from Asia and Africa. The missing mutation at position 76 (K76T in reported population(More)