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Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of endothelial-lined vessels in bone and the progressive destruction of bone. Although Jackson described the first case of GSD in 1838, the clinical and histological features of GSD were not defined until Gorham and Stout published their report on massive osteolysis in 1955. In(More)
Repurposing "old" drugs can facilitate rapid clinical translation but necessitates novel mechanistic insight. Warfarin, a vitamin K "antagonist" used clinically for the prevention of thrombosis for more than 50 years, has been shown to have anticancer effects. We hypothesized that the molecular mechanism underlying its antitumor activity is unrelated to its(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary stimulant of angiogenesis and is a macrophage chemotactic protein. Inhibition of VEGF is beneficial in combination with chemotherapy for some breast cancer patients. However, the mechanism by which inhibition of VEGF affects tumor growth seems to involve more than its effect on endothelial cells. In(More)
UNLABELLED Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often expresses mutant KRAS together with tumor-associated mutations of the CDKN2A locus, which are associated with aggressive, therapy-resistant tumors. Here, we unravel specific requirements for the maintenance of NSCLC that carries this genotype. We establish that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase(More)
Recent advances in molecular lymphology and lymphatic phenotyping techniques in small animals offer new opportunities to delineate mutant mouse models. Chy-3 mutant mice were originally named for their chylous ascites, but the underlying lymphatic disorder was not defined. We now re-examined these mice and applied advanced genotyping and lymphatic(More)
Molecular mechanisms regulating the remodeling of the lymphatic vasculature from an immature plexus of vessels to a hierarchal network of initial and collecting lymphatics are not well understood. One gene thought to be important for this process is Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). Ang2(-/-) mice have previously been reported to exhibit an abnormal lymphatic(More)
There is growing evidence that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), a ligand of the receptor tyrosine kinases VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, promotes lymphangiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms by which VEGF-A induces the growth of lymphatic vessels remain poorly defined. Here we report that VEGFR2, not VEGFR1, is the primary receptor regulating(More)
This review updates historical background from century-old observations on embryonic lymphatic system development through current understanding of the molecular basis of lymphvasculogenesis/lymphangiogenesis ("molecular lymphology"), highlighting similarities and differences with analogous blood vasculature processes. Topics covered include molecular(More)
Intraluminal valves are required for the proper function of lymphatic collecting vessels and large lymphatic trunks like the thoracic duct. Despite recent progress in the study of lymphvasculogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, the molecular mechanisms controlling the morphogenesis of lymphatic valves remain poorly understood. Here, we report that gap junction(More)
Lymphedema-distichiasis (OMIM 153400) is a dominantly inherited disorder typically presenting with lymphedema at puberty and distichiasis at birth. The condition has been decisively linked to mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXC2 which have been primarily frameshift mutations truncating the protein. We report here a novel missense mutation(More)