Michael Switkes

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More than 50 fluorocarbon liquids are measured for transparency over the wavelength range 150 to 200 nm for the purpose of identifying a suitably transparent fluid for use in 157-nm liquid immersion lithography. Purification methods such as degasification, distillation, silica gel drying, and supercritical fluid fractionation are investigated to determine(More)
A simulation package has been developed for predicting the influence of immersion, i.e. the presence of a uniform liquid layer between the last objective lens and the photoresist, on optical projection lithography. This technology has engendered considerable interest in the microlithography community during the past year, as it enables the real part of the(More)
ii I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a disser-tation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that I have read this dissertation and that in my opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a disser-tation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. I certify that(More)
We report transport measurements as a function of bias in open semiconductor quantum dots. These measurements are well described by an effective electron temperature derived from Joule heating at the point contacts and cooling by Wiedemann-Franz out-diffusion of thermal electrons. Using this model, we propose and analyze a quantum dot based sensor capable(More)
This paper reviews recent studies of mesoscopic fluctuations in transport through ballistic quantum dots, emphasizing differences between conduction through open dots and tunneling through nearly isolated dots. Both the open dots and the tunnel-contacted dots show random, repeatable conduc-tance fluctuations with universal statistical properties that are(More)
Nano-fabrication is one of the enabling technologies of nano-device and nano-science researches. While it was mainly invented throughout the progress of the semiconductor industry, its applications have gone beyond semiconductor devices and circuits. Understanding the science and technology of nano-fabrication becomes an essential foundation of successful(More)
Immersion lithography has been proposed as a method for improving optical microlithography resolution to 45 nm and below via the insertion of a high refractive index liquid between the final lens surface and the wafer. Because the liquid will act as a lens component during the imaging process, it must maintain a high, uniform optical quality. One potential(More)