Michael Switkes

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Based on the limited results of this eight-week comparison of formocresol and glutaraldehyde, it would appear that glutaraldehyde may offer distinct advantages over formocresol, in the treatment of cariously exposed primary and young permanent teeth. In particular, due to its chemical structure, it is more active in fixing the surface tissues and is more(More)
Paula Wetmore Val Krukonis Kara Williams Phasex Corporation Lawrence, Massachusetts 01843 Abstract. More than 50 fluorocarbon liquids are measured for transparency over the wavelength range 150 to 200 nm for the purpose of identifying a suitably transparent fluid for use in 157-nm liquid immersion lithography. Purification methods such as degasification,(More)
VOLUME 14, NUMBER 2, 2003 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL 221 O  ,   of patterning, has enabled semiconductor devices to progressively shrink since the inception of integrated circuits more than three decades ago. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the trend of miniaturization continued unabated and even accelerated. Current(More)
Immersion lithography has been proposed as a method for improving optical microlithography resolution to 45 nm and below via the insertion of a high refractive index liquid between the final lens surface and the wafer. Because the liquid will act as a lens component during the imaging process, it must maintain a high, uniform optical quality. One potential(More)
Introduction Lithography with 157-nm fluorine lasers is rapidly emerging as a viable technology for the post-193-nm era [1–3]. In fact, it may become the technology of choice for 100to 70-nm nodes. It is attractive for several reasons, the most important being that it is fundamentally an extension of optical lithography at the longer wavelengths of 248 and(More)
We report transport measurements as a function of bias in open semiconductor quantum dots. These measurements are well described by an effective electron temperature derived from Joule heating at the point contacts and cooling by Wiedemann-Franz out-diffusion of thermal electrons. Using this model, we propose and analyze a quantum dot based sensor which(More)
We have implemented a reflected-light microscope operating in the deep ultraviolet at 193 nm. Many materials absorb strongly at this wavelength, providing greatly enhanced contrast compared with visible and near-ultraviolet microscopes. Polymer films as thin as 1 nm and SiO(2) films as thin as 3 nm have been imaged with this nonoptimized instrument. We have(More)
We are developing a decision support architecture for chemical sensing networks, with the goal of improving their capability by interpreting alerts in the context of other available information. Most simply, health and status metrics derived from sensor data might indicate that false alerts are more than usually likely. In principle, however contextual(More)
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