Michael Switkes

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More than 50 fluorocarbon liquids are measured for transparency over the wavelength range 150 to 200 nm for the purpose of identifying a suitably transparent fluid for use in 157-nm liquid immersion lithography. Purification methods such as degasification, distillation, silica gel drying, and supercritical fluid fractionation are investigated to determine(More)
221 O  ,   of patterning, has enabled semiconductor devices to progressively shrink since the inception of integrated circuits more than three decades ago. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the trend of miniaturization continued unabated and even accelerated. Current semiconductor devices are being mass produced with 130-nm dense(More)
We report transport measurements as a function of bias in open semiconductor quantum dots. These measurements are well described by an effective electron temperature derived from Joule heating at the point contacts and cooling by Wiedemann-Franz out-diffusion of thermal electrons. Using this model, we propose and analyze a quantum dot based sensor capable(More)
We are developing a decision support architecture for chemical sensing networks, with the goal of improving their capability by interpreting alerts in the context of other available information. Most simply, health and status metrics derived from sensor data might indicate that false alerts are more than usually likely. In principle, however contextual(More)
Immersion lithography has been proposed as a method for improving optical microlithography resolution to 45 nm and below via the insertion of a high refractive index liquid between the final lens surface and the wafer. Because the liquid will act as a lens component during the imaging process, it must maintain a high, uniform optical quality. One potential(More)
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