Michael Switkes

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More than 50 fluorocarbon liquids are measured for transparency over the wavelength range 150 to 200 nm for the purpose of identifying a suitably transparent fluid for use in 157-nm liquid immersion lithography. Purification methods such as degasification, distillation, silica gel drying, and supercritical fluid fractionation are investigated to determine(More)
221 O  ,   of patterning, has enabled semiconductor devices to progressively shrink since the inception of integrated circuits more than three decades ago. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the trend of miniaturization continued unabated and even accelerated. Current semiconductor devices are being mass produced with 130-nm dense(More)
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