Michael Switkes

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Based on the limited results of this eight-week comparison of formocresol and glutaraldehyde, it would appear that glutaraldehyde may offer distinct advantages over formocresol, in the treatment of cariously exposed primary and young permanent teeth. In particular, due to its chemical structure, it is more active in fixing the surface tissues and is more(More)
More than 50 fluorocarbon liquids are measured for transparency over the wavelength range 150 to 200 nm for the purpose of identifying a suitably transparent fluid for use in 157-nm liquid immersion lithography. Purification methods such as degasification, distillation, silica gel drying, and supercritical fluid fractionation are investigated to determine(More)
221 O  ,   of patterning, has enabled semiconductor devices to progressively shrink since the inception of integrated circuits more than three decades ago. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the trend of miniaturization continued unabated and even accelerated. Current semiconductor devices are being mass produced with 130-nm dense(More)
Immersion lithography has been proposed as a method for improving optical microlithography resolution to 45 nm and below via the insertion of a high refractive index liquid between the final lens surface and the wafer. Because the liquid will act as a lens component during the imaging process, it must maintain a high, uniform optical quality. One potential(More)
Review of technology for 157-nm lithography This paper outlines the critical issues facing the implementation of 157-nm lithography as a sub-100-nm technology. The status of the present technology for mask materials, pellicles, optical materials, coatings, and resists is presented.
We are developing a decision support architecture for chemical sensing networks, with the goal of improving their capability by interpreting alerts in the context of other available information. Most simply, health and status metrics derived from sensor data might indicate that false alerts are more than usually likely. In principle, however contextual(More)
We have implemented a reflected-light microscope operating in the deep ultraviolet at 193 nm. Many materials absorb strongly at this wavelength, providing greatly enhanced contrast compared with visible and near-ultraviolet microscopes. Polymer films as thin as 1 nm and SiO(2) films as thin as 3 nm have been imaged with this nonoptimized instrument. We have(More)
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