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Caspases are essential components of the mammalian cell death machinery. Here we test the hypothesis that Caspase 9 (Casp9) is a critical upstream activator of caspases through gene targeting in mice. The majority of Casp9 knockout mice die perinatally with a markedly enlarged and malformed cerebrum caused by reduced apoptosis during brain development.(More)
Bouma's law of crowding predicts an uncrowded central window through which we can read and a crowded periphery through which we cannot. The old discovery that readers make several fixations per second, rather than a continuous sweep across the text, suggests that reading is limited by the number of letters that can be acquired in one fixation, without(More)
The interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) converting enzyme (ICE) processes the inactive IL-1 beta precursor to the proinflammatory cytokine. Adherent monocytes from mice harboring a disrupted ICE gene (ICE-/-) did not export IL-1 beta or interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Export of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and(More)
The Aurora kinases are essential for the regulation of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis during mitosis. Aberrant expression and activity of these kinases occur in a wide range of human tumors, and lead to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinases, VX-680, that(More)
We propose an integrative cognitive neuroscience framework for understanding the cognitive and neural foundations of religious belief. Our analysis reveals 3 psychological dimensions of religious belief (God's perceived level of involvement, God's perceived emotion, and doctrinal/experiential religious knowledge), which functional MRI localizes within(More)
The interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) converting enzyme (ICE) processes the inactive IL-1beta precursor to the proinflammatory cytokine. ICE was also shown to cleave the precursor of interferon-gamma inducing factor (IGIF) at the authentic processing site with high efficiency, thereby activating IGIF and facilitating its export. Lipopolysaccharide-activated(More)
BACKGROUND The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, and regulate signal transduction in response to environmental stress. Activation and nuclear localization of JNK3, a neuronal-specific isoform of JNK, has been associated with hypoxic and ischemic damage of CA1 neurons in the hippocampus.(More)
Neuroblastomas frequently show spontaneous regression and differentiation, which may at least partly be regulated by signaling through nerve growth factor and its receptors, TRK-A and p75LNTR. We studied 52 neuroblastic tumors to test whether the cell death-related proteases, interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), CPP32, and Ich-1, were involved in the(More)
BACKGROUND Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) has been overshadowed by the more common late-onset AD (LOAD). Yet, the literature indicates EOAD may have less hippocampal-memory presentations and more focal neocortical localization early in the disease. OBJECTIVE To evaluate these proposed differences between these 2 forms of AD and to explore what(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 protein (NS3) is a 70-kDa multifunctional enzyme with three known catalytic activities segregated in two somewhat independent domains. The essential machinery of a serine protease is localized in the N-terminal one-third of the protein, and nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) and helicase activities reside in the(More)