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Caspases are essential components of the mammalian cell death machinery. Here we test the hypothesis that Caspase 9 (Casp9) is a critical upstream activator of caspases through gene targeting in mice. The majority of Casp9 knockout mice die perinatally with a markedly enlarged and malformed cerebrum caused by reduced apoptosis during brain development.(More)
Bouma's law of crowding predicts an uncrowded central window through which we can read and a crowded periphery through which we cannot. The old discovery that readers make several fixations per second, rather than a continuous sweep across the text, suggests that reading is limited by the number of letters that can be acquired in one fixation, without(More)
The interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) converting enzyme (ICE) processes the inactive IL-1 beta precursor to the proinflammatory cytokine. Adherent monocytes from mice harboring a disrupted ICE gene (ICE-/-) did not export IL-1 beta or interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Export of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and(More)
The Aurora kinases are essential for the regulation of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis during mitosis. Aberrant expression and activity of these kinases occur in a wide range of human tumors, and lead to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinases, VX-680, that(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Exon 2 of erk2 was deleted by homologous recombination and resulted in embryonic lethality at embryonic day 6.5. erk2 mutant embryos did not form mesoderm and showed increased apoptosis but comparable levels of BrdUrd incorporation, indicating a(More)
Erk5 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase, the biological role of which is largely undefined. Therefore, we deleted the erk5 gene in mice to assess its function in vivo. Inactivation of the erk5 gene resulted in defective blood-vessel and cardiac development leading to embryonic lethality around embryonic days 9.5-10.5. Cardiac development was retarded(More)
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated by environmental stress and cytokines and plays a role in transcriptional regulation and inflammatory responses. The crystal structure of the apo, unphosphorylated form of p38 kinase has been solved at 2.3 A resolution. The fold and topology of p38 is similar to ERK2 (Zhang, F., Strand, A., Robbins, D.,(More)
The interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) converting enzyme (ICE) processes the inactive IL-1beta precursor to the proinflammatory cytokine. ICE was also shown to cleave the precursor of interferon-gamma inducing factor (IGIF) at the authentic processing site with high efficiency, thereby activating IGIF and facilitating its export. Lipopolysaccharide-activated(More)
The transcription factors Elk-1 and SAP-1 bind together with serum response factor to the serum response element present in the c-fos promoter and mediate increased gene expression. The ERK, JNK, and p38 groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases phosphorylate and activate Elk-1 in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. In contrast, SAP-1 is(More)
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is cytotoxic to rat pancreatic beta-cells by inhibiting glucose oxidation, causing DNA damage and inducing apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) is a necessary but not sufficient mediator of these effects. IL-1beta induced kinase activity toward Elk-1, activation transcription factor 2, c-Jun, and heat shock protein 25 in rat islets. By(More)