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Studies of psychiatric disorders have traditionally focused on emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety and hallucinations. However, poorly controlled cognitive deficits are equally prominent and severely compromise quality of life, including social and professional integration. Consequently, intensive efforts are being made to characterize the(More)
The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at(More)
Acute stress inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP) at synapses from the hippocampus to prefrontal cortex in the rat, a model of the dysfunction in the anterior cingulate/orbitofrontal cortices which has been observed in human depression. We demonstrate that the antidepressants tianeptine and, to a lesser extent, fluoxetine, are able to reverse the(More)
The ligand-gated ion channels that participate in fast synaptic transmission comprise the nicotinic acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3), gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)), glycine, ionotropic glutamate and P2X receptor families. A consistent and systematic nomenclature for the individual subunits that comprise these receptors and the receptors that(More)
The direct hippocampal to prefrontal cortex pathway and its changes in synaptic plasticity is a useful framework for investigating the functional operations of hippocampal-prefrontal cortex communication in cognitive functions. Synapses on this pathway are modifiable and synaptic strength can be turned up or down depending on specific patterns of activity(More)
The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology/British Pharmacological Society (IUPHAR/BPS) Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) is a new open access resource providing pharmacological, chemical, genetic, functional and pathophysiological data on the targets of approved and experimental drugs. Created under the auspices of(More)
The IUPHAR database is an established online reference resource for several important classes of human drug targets and related proteins. As well as providing recommended nomenclature, the database integrates information on the chemical, genetic, functional and pathophysiological properties of receptors and ion channels, curated and peer-reviewed from the(More)
The concept of intrinsic efficacy has been enshrined in pharmacology for half of a century, yet recent data have revealed that many ligands can differentially activate signaling pathways mediated via a single G protein-coupled receptor in a manner that challenges the traditional definition of intrinsic efficacy. Some terms for this phenomenon include(More)
Psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia are leading causes of disability worldwide, and have a huge societal impact. However, despite the clear need for better therapies, and major advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of these disorders in recent years, efforts to discover and develop new drugs for(More)
The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at(More)