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The natural history of Chiari I malformation in children remains unclear. A population-based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Radiology reports from all head and spine magnetic resonance imaging scans (n = 5248) performed among 741,815 children under age 20 within Kaiser Northern California, 1997-1998, were searched for Chiari I. Medical(More)
BACKGROUND 'Conventional' protocols of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered to M1 can produce analgesia. Theta burst stimulation (TBS), a novel rTMS paradigm, is thought to produce greater changes in M1 excitability than 'conventional' protocols. After a preliminary experiment showing no analgesic effect of continuous(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cardiac injury is common after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and is associated with adverse early outcomes, but long-term effects are unknown. The first aim of this study was to compare the long-term rates of death, stroke, and cardiac events in SAH survivors versus a matched population without SAH. The second aim was to quantify the(More)
BACKGROUND Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can relieve neuropathic pain when applied at high frequency (HF: 5-20 Hz) over the primary motor cortex (M1), contralateral to pain side. In most studies, rTMS is delivered over the hand motor hot spot (hMHS), whatever pain location. Navigation systems have been developed to guide rTMS(More)
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