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We provide a taxonomy of the two most important debates in the philosophy of the cognitive and neural sciences. The first debate is over methodological individualism: is the object of the cognitive and neural sciences the brain, the whole animal, or the animal-environment system? The second is over explanatory style: should explanation in cognitive and(More)
OBJECTIVES To show that hydronephrosis (HN) can be tracked by the quantitative reproducible hydronephrosis index (HI) and that HI is useful for serial ultrasound (US) studies to determine whether HN is improving or deteriorating. METHODS We found 60 hydronephrotic kidneys in 46 study patients. The other 32 kidneys were normal or absent. Serial US studies(More)
Enzyme structures determined in organic solvents show that most organic molecules cluster in the active site, delineating the binding pocket. We have developed algorithms to perform solvent mapping computationally, rather than experimentally, by placing molecular probes (small molecules or functional groups) on a protein surface, and finding the regions(More)
Computational mapping methods place molecular probes (small molecules or functional groups) on a protein surface to identify the most favorable binding positions by calculating an interaction potential. We have developed a novel computational mapping program called CS-Map (computational solvent mapping of proteins), which differs from earlier mapping(More)
Roentgenographic data on the maturing epiphysis of the medial epicondyle of the humerus are prone to misinterpretation for the following reasons. First, fractures of the medial epicondyle may not be associated with joint effusion or metaphyseal avulsion fragments. Second, in the medial epicondyle the center of ossification, which lies posteromedial to the(More)
Computational mapping methods place molecular probes--small molecules or functional groups--on a protein surface in order to identify the most favorable binding positions by calculating an interaction potential. Mapping is an important step in a number of flexible docking and drug design algorithms. We have developed improved algorithms for mapping protein(More)
The catalytic site of haloalkane dehalogenase DhlA is buried more than 10 A from the protein surface. While potential access channels to this site have been reported, the precise mechanism of substrate import and product export is still unconfirmed. We used computational methods to examine surface pockets and their putative roles in ligand access to and(More)
Single-contrast arthrography was performed in six infants who had an injury to the elbow because the exact nature of the injury was uncertain from interpretation of the plain radiographs and clinical findings. A correct diagnosis was made in all six patients, and it significantly altered the treatment in five. Four lesions were a Salter-Harris Type-I(More)