Michael Shokhen

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Various mechanisms for the reversible formation of a covalent tetrahedral complex (TC) between papain and peptidyl aldehyde inhibitors were simulated by DFT calculations, applying the quantum mechanical/self consistent reaction field (virtual solvent) [QM/SCRF(VS)] approach. Only one mechanism correlates with the experimental kinetic data. The His-Cys(More)
The hitherto unsolved problem of the origin of the unusually high nitrogen inversion-rotation (NIR) barriers in 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes (the bicyclic effect) was examined using the natural bond orbital (NBO) approach. Reinvestigating the NIR barrier for tropane by DNMR, we found that NIR barriers increase smoothly on going from nitrogen-bridged bicyclic(More)
Rhomboid proteases are a ubiquitous family of intramembrane serine proteases in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that cleave membrane proteins in their transmembrane region. Their catalytic activity is centered at a His-Ser catalytic dyad. We applied molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics calculations in order to clarify the protonation state of the(More)
Endo peptidyl epoxides, in which the central epoxidic moiety replaces the scissile amide bond of a P(3)-P(3)' peptide, were designed as cysteine proteases inhibitors. The additional P'-S' interactions, relative to those of an exo peptidyl epoxide of the same P(3)-P(1) sequence, significantly improved affinity to the enzymes papain and cathepsin B, but also(More)
The transformation of a weak hydrogen bond in the free enzyme into a low-barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB) in the tetrahedral intermediate has been suggested as an important factor facilitating catalysis in serine proteases. In this work, we examine the structure of the H-bond in the Asp102-His57 diad of serine proteases in the free enzyme and in a covalent(More)
We introduce an enzyme mechanism-based method (EMBM) aimed at rational design of chemical sites (CS) of reaction coordinate analog inhibitors. The energy of valence reorganization of CS, caused by the formation of the enzyme-inhibitor covalent complex, is accounted for by new covalent descriptors W1 and W2. We considered CS fragments with a carbonyl(More)
What is the driving force that alters the catalytic function of His57 in serine proteases between general base and general acid in each step along the enzymatic reaction? The stable tetrahedral complexes (TC) of chymotrypsin with trifluoromethyl ketone transition state analogue inhibitors are topologically similar to the catalytic transition state.(More)
The pKa of the catalytic His57 N(epsilon)H in the tetrahedral complex (TC) of chymotrypsin with trifluoromethyl ketone inhibitors is 4-5 units higher relative to the free enzyme (FE). Such stable TC's, formed with transition state (TS) analog inhibitors, are topologically similar to the catalytic TS. Thus, analysis of this pKa shift may shed light on the(More)
A central mechanistic paradigm of cysteine proteases is that the His-Cys catalytic diad forms an ion-pair NH(+)/S(-) already in the catalytically active free enzyme. Most molecular modeling studies of cysteine proteases refer to this paradigm as their starting point. Nevertheless, several recent kinetics and X-ray crystallography studies of viral and(More)
General acid-base catalysis is a key element of the catalytic activity of most enzymes. Therefore, any explicit molecular modeling of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions requires correct identification of protons location on the catalytic groups. In this work, we apply our quantum mechanical/self-consistent reaction field in virtual solvent [QM/SCRF(VS)](More)