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Communication-based design represents a formal method approach to of system-on-a-chip design that considers communication between components as important as the computations they perform. “Our network-on-chip&rdqo ; approach partitions the communication into layers to maximize reuse and provide a programmer with an abstraction of the underlying(More)
Site-3 toxins have been shown to inhibit a component of gating charge (33% of maximum gating charge, Q(max)) in native cardiac Na channels that has been identified with the open-to-inactivated state kinetic transition. To investigate the role of the three outermost arginine amino acid residues in segment 4 domain IV (R1, R2, R3) in gating charge inhibited(More)
1. Sodium channel ionic current (INa) and gating current (Ig) were compared for rat skeletal (rSkM1) and human heart Na+ channels (hH1a) heterologously expressed in cultured mammalian cells at approximately 13 C before and after modification by site-3 toxins (Anthopleurin A and Anthopleurin B). 2. For hH1a Na+ channels there was a concordance between the(More)
The site 3 toxin, Anthopleurin-A (Ap-A), was used to modify inactivation of sodium channels in voltage-clamped single canine cardiac Purkinje cells at approximately 12 degrees C. Although Ap-A toxin markedly prolonged decay of sodium current (INa) in response to step depolarizations, there was only a minor hyperpolarizing shift by 2.5 +/- 1.7 mV (n = 13) of(More)
The gating charge and voltage dependence of the open state to the inactivated state (O-->I) transition was measured for the voltage-dependent mammalian cardiac Na channel. Using the site 3 toxin, Anthopleurin-A (Ap-A), which selectively modifies the O-->I transition (see Hanck, D. A., and M. F. Sheets. 1995. Journal of General Physiology. 106:601-616), we(More)
Gating currents (Ig) were recorded in single canine cardiac Purkinje cells at 10-12 degrees C. Ig characteristics corresponded closely to macroscopic INa characteristics and appeared to exhibit little contamination from other voltage-gated channels. Charge density predicted by peak INa was 0.14-0.22 fC micron -2 and this compared well with the measured(More)
1. Single canine cardiac Purkinje cells were internally perfused and voltage clamped with a large-bore perfusion pipette for measurement of sodium ionic current (INa) in the absence and presence of extracellular group IIA divalent cations (Mg2+, Ba2+ and Ca2+), transition divalent cations (CO2+, Mn2+ and Ni2+), group IIB divalent cations (Cd2+ and Zn2+),(More)
Open channel properties of canine cardiac Purkinje cell Na+ channels were studied with single channel cell-attached recording and with whole cell macroscopic current recording in internally perfused cells. Single channel currents and membrane currents increased with an increase in Na+ concentration, but showed evidence of saturation. Assuming first-order(More)
One of the most compelling challenges of the next decade is the " last-meter " problem, extending the expanding data network into end-user data-collection and monitoring devices. PicoRadio supports the assembly of an ad hoc wireless network of self-contained mesoscale, low-cost, low-energy sensor and monitor nodes. While technology advances have made it(More)
A low power wireless intercom system is designed and implemented. Two fully-operational ASICs, integrating custom and commercial IP, implement the entire digital portion of the protocol stack. Combined, the chips consume 13 mW on average when three nodes are connected to the network. A high-level design methodology was used to define the protocol stack and(More)